From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DOCTOR BOOKS — one of types of Old Russian medical literature. Treat them: zeleynik (see), tselebnik, herbalists, vertograda, vrachebnik, «vrachevsky books». In many cases between the medical manuscripts carrying the different name there was no considerable difference. Emergence of L. goes back to emergence of writing in Russia. Early originals of L. did not remain, only «Shestodnev» of Ioann Bolgarsky (1263) contains the short report but anatomy stated in the spirit of Aristotelian physiophilosophy, and extraction on medicinal botany from Dioskorid, Teofrast. Originals for translated L. medical works of Greeks, southern Slavs, Syrians served. Along with translated medical literature of observation of medical character registered also in the national environment what the records found at excavation on birch bark, skin, a tree testify to. Being a product of collective folk art, these national L., as a rule, were anonymous. Such L. are found in the territory of Kievan and Galitsko-Volynsky Rus', Veliky Novgorod, near Pskov, etc.

From the second half of 15 century under the influence of literature of the Western European Renaissance in Russia thematic enrichment of medical manuscripts was outlined. V L. that time («Secret secret», «Problemat Aristotle») data a gigabyte contained. character, a note on a dietetics and anatomic descriptions. The transfers from Arab and Latin extending «heretics from Lithuania» in the Moscow state were prohibited by the Stoglavy cathedral (1551) for discrepancies with the church doctrine.

Other welcome in Russia was accorded to L. more practical contents, known under a name of «vertograd» or «blagoprokhladny vertograd». The first vertograd was transferred in 1534 by the doctor of the Russian service "nemchinom" Nikolay Bulev from the Western European book «Hortus sanitatis» («A garden of health»). The numerous medicinal «potions» of a plant, animal and mineral origin described in it were located in alphabetical order with reduction of foreign-language synonyms, with detailed instructions on a disease, at to-rykh them it is necessary to apply and in what dosage. Many pages of a vertograd were illustrated by perfectly executed drawings. As «annex» to a vertograd served a series of articles («doctrines», «reasonings») on urine (the analysis of urine), «about a vkhozhdeniya banny», «about chepuchinny sitting» (hot bathtubs at treatment of syphilis); were given also a gigabyte. councils: about drinking water, about healthy food, about the maintenance of the house and so forth. It was a peculiar medical encyclopedia; vertograda got big distribution and popularity in the people. That social environment for which they were intended (clergy, scribes, merchants, the peasantry, work people) exerted impact on the maintenance of vertograd. E.g., vertograda of stroganovsky salterns — «The doctor book of Stroganovsky drugs about doctoring for any diseases and about any zeleyny descents» were intended for work people. Gradually the maintenance of vertograd became complicated.

In the form of additions to them there were books by «diseases the child whose», on care of «a zhenka on a rozheniya», etc. L. sold at fairs and in malls of the large cities, transferred according to wills, gave in church, took as military trophies in battles. V L. author's signatures more often were not appended or replaced with monograms (taynopisye) at all. As a result of repeated copyings vertograd lost the initial appearance and depending on preparation, personal abilities of copyists gradually turned into performing national Russian literary creativity. Among copyists there is a L. 15 century Kirill from the Belozersk monastery is known. Originators of L. the second half of 17 century Mitrofan Petrov, Ivan Venedikhtov (Muscovites) were considered, at the beginning of 18 century — the bishop Afanasy Holmogorsky is Peter I's deputy in the north. Due to the emergence of publishing at the end of 17 century the number of hand-written L. it is reduced, at the beginning of 18 century still the centers of their copying in deaf dissenting monasteries remained; there is a L. gradually became simpler to the level of znakharsky records. Under the influence of the developing medicine of 18 century Old Russian L. lost the value, having become only a historical monument to medical writing. The number of the manuscripts of L considered by the Soviet archive depositories. reaches 800 names. Old Russian L. have positive value in the history of domestic science, they were a source of knowledge in the field of medical botany, zoology, mineralogy, played an important role in transfer to Russia of the advanced achievements of medicine of other countries. In turn, in the medical practice German also in particular the Polish doctors of the Russian service willingly used the Russian vertograda. Medical dictionary fund L., reflected features of various eras and regional features, can serve for specification of Old Russian regional pathology, studying nozol., anatomic and pharmakol, terminology.

Bibliography: Bogoyavlensky N. A. To the 300 anniversary of opening of the first doctor school in Russia, the Paramedic and akush., No. 1, page 40, 1955; Gruzdev V. F. Russian hand-written doctor books, L., 1946, bibliogr.; 3 m of e e in L. F. Russian vrachebnik, SPb., 1896; L and x t and M. Yu N. Ancient monuments to medical writing, Notes Mosk. arkheol. in-that, t. 17, page 1, 1912; Speransky M. From history of otrechenny books, the Aristotelian gate or Secret secret, SPb., 1908; In r u n s with h-w i g H. Liber de arte distillandi, de simplicibus, Strassburg, 1537; Hortus sanitatis, Mainz, 1491.

H. A. Bogoyavlensky.