DOCTOR — the name of the doctor in pre-revolutionary Russia. The root of the word «lek» — treatment, medicine, a medical medicine — goes back to ancient Slavic lexicon; it is known to also ancient Czechs, Poles. In the Old Russian state (9 — 12 centuries) the terms «lecheets», «doctor», «doctor» were in use, and essential distinction in their understanding was not. In «Aristotle's Gate» — a written monument to Russia 15 century the word «medicine» is used in medicine value. Pistsovy books of 15 century mention «zhenok-lekaritsa» in Novgorod. The Moscow Russia used the term «doctor» in official documentation. In writing and in informal conversation it was preferred to synonyms «doctor» (church and canonical), «lecheets» (South Russian). In troops there were «regimental doctors» and «centesimal doctors»; pupils of school at Pharmaceutical order (see), founded in 1654, were called «pupils of doctor business».
In 17 century in indications of the Pharmaceutical order professional and utilitarian functions and the subordinated position of doctors in relation to «dokhtura» were emphasized (scientific): «Dokhtur gives the advice and orders, and to that is not skillful, and the doctor puts and medicine treats, and itself is not taught, and obtekar at them at both the cook».
The army regulations of Peter I entered the names «headquarters doctor» and «subdoctor». The headquarters doctors were appointed in divisions and regiments, a rank it was considered as high, was given to persons with the higher medical education only after «long and blameless service»; the number the headquarters doctors was very limited. According to the decree of 1728 the headquarters doctor received a rank the captain-lieutenant, the doctor — the second lieutenant. In 1744 similar ranks were appropriated to doctors of the fleet. The subdoctor called the persons with unfinished medical education which passed several years of practical training. The term «doctor» used less often, equivalent to the term «doctor», in Paul I's reign, in 1800, was excluded from official use.
The term «doctor» began to be applied to the middle of 19 century on civil service (the territorial doctor, the district doctor, the policeman the doctor), and in army the term «doctor» remained preferential. In diplomas of medical in-t and f-tov till 1917 it was written «doctor».
After Great October socialist revolution in official documentation, diplomas of the highest medical educational institutions the term «doctor» was replaced with the word «doctor». In the first years of the Soviet power it was admitted, especially to armies, the term «lekpy» (the doctor assistant) in value of the medical assistant, medic with the finished secondary medical education. Military and medical assistant's schools till 1923 were called «Courses of red lekpom», further this term lost official value and gave way to the word «paramedic».
See also Doctor , Paramedic .
Bibliography: Budilovich A. S. Primitive Slavs in their language, life and concepts, by data leksikalny, Izv. Ist. - filol. in-that in Nezhin, otd. 3, page 1, Kiev, 1878, t. 3, page 265, Kiev, 1879; L and x - t and N M. Yu. Meditsina and doctors in the Moscow state (in pre-Pertine Russia), M., 1 906; PI about in about m e r with to and y N. A medical structure in pre-Pertine Russia, page 88, Tomsk, 1907; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 1, Art. 1008, M., 1946.
N. A. Bogoyavlensky.