To destination V. rubles divide on rescue, ship-repair, ship-raising, ship, construction, trade, scientific and experimental.
For running in. rubles use a complex of equipment for immersion of the person under water, his stay at a depth and rise on a surface.
Diving equipment (fig.) isolates the person from direct influence of an aqueous medium, provides breath of the diver with the increased barometric pressure. Depending on a way of air delivery or air mixture for breath the diving equipment happens ventilated, injector and regenerative, regenerative and equipment to the open scheme of breath.
Continuous feeding on a flexible pipe of compressed air for ventilation of subhelmet space from the vessel providing diving works is provided in the ventilated diving equipment.
Means of a partial or complete recovery of respiratory mix enter injector and regenerative diving equipment. Duration of work of the diver in this equipment is connected with a running time of the regenerative boss. During the works at a depth up to 100 m for breath under water use air-oxygen mixes, during diving descents deeply — oxygen-helium equipment with an additional emergency reserve of gas mixture and regenerative substance.
The regenerative diving equipment provides breath in system of the respiratory device on a closed circuit; apply it at a small depth (to 20 m). Respiratory mix in this equipment is recovered in the regenerative boss, and respiratory volume is filled with oxygen from a cylinder. Time of stay of the diver under water in regenerative equipment is defined by a reserve of oxygen in cylinders.
The diving equipment with the open scheme of breath is subdivided on hose, air and balloon and universal. Air supply for breath is carried out from high-pressure tanks. Time of stay under water in diving equipment with the open scheme of breath depends on a reserve of compressed air in cylinders. This diving equipment is applied at a depth up to 40 m.
Communication with divers is carried out by means of two-sided phone or the alarm end on system of the accepted prearranged signals.
For protection from excessive heat waste at immersion under hydrooveralls put on woolen diving linen (the sweater, breeches, a tarboosh, stockings, socks and gloves are included in the package of linen).
Cargo belts, creating the necessary weight of the diver under water, provide its buoyancy and stability.
Work of divers belongs to the category heavy and exclusively heavy physical. work. All divers are exposed to a complex of influences of the dangerous and harmful factors caused by influence of an aqueous medium and supertension.
Under the influence of these factors at immersion under water power consumption increases, during the performance of work orientation in the environment worsens, coordination of movements is at a loss, activity of respiratory, cardiovascular systems of an organism (tab. 1) amplifies.
Content of harmful impurity in the mix of gases arriving for breath to the diver shall not exceed admissible concentration (tab. 2).
Impurity on site of a fence, decomposition of lubricating oil in the compressor, hit of oil in the compressed gases can be a source of harmful impurity in compressed gases. Use filters and blocks of cleaning to purification of mix of harmful impurity.
At non-compliance with rules of work and operation of diving equipment the barotrauma of an ear and adnexal bosoms of a nose, lungs, overcooling, a compressed-air disease, poisoning with oxygen, carbon dioxide gas, air hunger is possible.
The barotrauma of an ear and adnexal nasal cavities is observed at the increased speed of a compression of divers and disturbance of passability of an acoustical (eustachian) pipe owing to diseases. For the prevention of a barotrauma of an ear and adnexal nasal cavities it is necessary to regulate the speed of immersion; the diver in case of need does the deglutitory movements and strains muscles of a neck.
The barotrauma of lungs arises owing to a gap or severe stretching of pulmonary fabric at sharp increase in intra alveolar pressure owing to what gas gets into a vascular bed and a pleural cavity. The blow of a respiratory bag of regenerative equipment about various objects can be the cause of a barotrauma of lungs. The barotrauma arises not only at increase, but also at falloff of pressure in lungs that is possible in cases of a breath from the closed space of insufficient volume (see. Barotrauma ).
Overcooling is caused by action of a cold factor under water. Extent of cooling depends on ambient temperature, heat-insulating properties of diving clothes. With fall of temperature at divers overcooling develops (see Cooling of an organism). Compliance of diving equipment to a type of works and observance of the mode of work is the main requirement of prevention of overcooling of divers.
At immersion of the diver on depth of St. 45 m with use for breath of compressed air there can step the nitric anesthesia, for to-rogo the state similar to alcoholic intoxication is characteristic: orientation is broken, coordination of movements worsens, control of behavior is lost. The major factors causing a narcotic condition of divers it is considered to be the high partial pressure of nitrogen and accumulation of carbon dioxide gas in an organism in the conditions of the increased barometric pressure (see. Compressed-air disease). In case of a nitric anesthesia of the diver it is necessary to lift on smaller depth or on a surface.
During the work under water oxygen poisoning results from inhalation of gas mixture with the high content of oxygen (see. Hyperoxia ); it is observed at immersion in regenerative oxygen equipment on depth more than 20 m. The diver has pains in a breast, there is a spasm of peripheral vessels, numbness of fingers; further pneumonia develops. The main preventive action — strict observance of requirements to terms of stay in the giperoksichesky environment and control of the oxygen content according to depth of immersion.
Air hunger can be caused by the insufficient oxygen content in gas mixture for breath, in the conditions of heavy physical. works, insufficient ventilation of subhelmet space. In such cases hold a complex of events, ordinary at hypoxemic states (see. Hypoxia ).
Poisoning with carbon dioxide gas and exhaust gases most often occurs at divers during the work in the ventilated, injector and regenerative and regenerative equipment. Insufficient ventilation of a diving helmet against the background of heavy physical can be the reasons of poisoning ug lekisly gas. works, failure of the regenerative boss. In the conditions of supertension carbon dioxide gas strengthens toxic effect of oxygen. Assistance at poisoning with carbon dioxide gas (an artificial respiration, inhalation of oxygen taking into account possible specific diseases) is carried out on a surface (see. Hypercapnia ).
To V. the river allows males at the age of 18 — 50 years, to physical. to-rykh in connection with specific working conditions impose on a state increased requirements. Preliminary and periodic (annual) medical examinations carry out according to «Instructive-methodological indications on medical selection of the persons coming to educational institutions for training of diving specialty and re-examination of divers» of the medical commission to lay down. institutions of vodzdravotdel. Train in diving specialty at diving schools according to the programs approved by the State committee at Council of ministers of the USSR on vocational training.
Divers have the shortened working hours increased up to 24 working days issue, additional payment of hours of stay under water taking into account conditions and features of work; retirement age — 50 years.
Bibliography: Uniform rules of labor protection at diving works, M., 1965; Myles S. Underwater medicine, the lane with English, M., 1971; The Reference book of the diver, under the editorship of E. P. Shikapoz, M., 1973.
G. I. Kurenkov.