DISTILLERY — the enterprise for production of alcohol for various industries of the national economy, including for the food industry. Raw materials for production alcohol (see), used for preparation of vodka, grain of cereal cultures, potatoes, beet, molasses are. Alcohol from food vegetable raw materials is received mikrobiol. in the way based on fermentation by yeast of the sugar which is contained in raw materials. To use nonfood raw materials for receiving the alcohol intended for preparation of vodka, inadmissibly since in the course of receiving alcohol many toxics are formed of cellulose or a synthetic way. All raw materials arriving on S. z., there takes place laboratory control; it shall be homogeneous, not struck with a mold and wreckers, on physical. - to correspond to chemical indicators tekhnol. to standards. The water used in production of alcohol shall meet the requirements of GOST «Drinking Water» for bacteriological indicators and mineral composition, especially for rigidity and content of iron (see. Water, sanitary and hygienic requirements ).
Modern S. z. it is characterized by high extent of automation and sealing. However in production there is a row professional vrednost (see). So, working conditions in the workshop of primary processing where raw materials are washed from pollution, is cleared of impurity, organic dust, and then crushed, are characterized high vlago-and a pylevydeleniye; processes of a razvarivaniye, an osakhariva-niya, fermentations, rectification are followed by allocation in air of a working zone of a large amount of heat; at disturbance of technology volatile organic substances, carbon dioxide gas can come to air of rooms in considerable concentration of couple of alcohol (see. Carbon monoxide ). For elimination of an adverse effect of vapors of alcohol and other volatile substances in all production rooms natural and mechanical forced-air and exhaust all-exchange is equipped ventilation (see), and also emergency ventilation.
In the workshop of pouring the increased noise levels are noted. For noise reduction use sound-absorbing materials, earphones. For the persons working at the light filter the specific mode of work (obligatory change every 2 — 3 hour) for the purpose of prevention of overfatigue of eyes is set. To employees of laboratories C. z., contacting to yeast, fungi, antibiotics, for prevention of allergic laryngitis, rhinitises, eczemas, dermatitis, candidiases it is recommended to follow rules strictly personal hygiene (see) to use respirators (see). For protection against influence of harmful production factors by the worker give overalls from cotton and tarpaulin (see. Clothes special ), leather and rubber footwear (see), protective points (see), respirators; remote controls of management, automatic recorders are implemented. The workers occupied in distillery production have medical examinations (see. Medical examination ) according to the Instruction about obligatory medical examinations of the persons going to work and working at the food enterprises. The sanitary mode on S. z. shall conform to requirements of Health regulations for the enterprises of the alcoholic beverage industry.
Bibliography: Bachurin P. Ya. and Smirnov of V. A. Tekhnologiya of alcoholic beverage production, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Technology and the equipment of food productions, under the editorship of H. N. Nazarova, page 263, M., 1977; Technology of alcohol, under the editorship of V. A. Smirnov, M., 1981, bibliogr.
N. A. Volkova.