From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DISINFECTION CHAMBERS (installations) — the devices intended for disinfection and disinsection of clothes, bedding, footwear and other objects.

Depending on the disinfecting agent D. to. are subdivided on steam, steam-air, paroformalinovy, goryachevozdushny, gas, combined.

In steam To. steam atmospheric or supertension, brought from above (over things) for replacement of air from the camera is used. Temperature in the steam-heating chamber 100 with above (according to steam pressure). Steam D. to., equipped with the vacuum pump, can work also with a pressure below atmospheric. Such cameras are called vacuum cameras.

In steam-air To., gained the greatest distribution in the USSR, as the disinfecting agent serves the water saturated steam brought from below (under things) and mixed with the air which is available in the camera; temperature of vapor-air mixture from 80 to 98 °. For increase in the disinfecting effect of water vapor at low temperatures in the camera (40 — 59 °) when disinfect the leather, fur and other products which are not maintaining high temperature apply vapors of formaldehyde received in the special device (evaporator), the Crimea all steam-air cameras are equipped. Thus, steam-air cameras use also for disinfection of things by a paroformalinovy method therefore they are called sometimes steam-air and formalin cameras. All steam-heating and steam-air disinfection chambers provide disinsection of things (at lower temperature).

Goryachevozdushnye To. use preferential for disinsection of clothes, bedding, valyany footwear, upholstered furniture and other objects. In these cameras of a thing get warm a dry hot air at t ° 80 — 110 °. In the elementary cameras air has natural circulation, in more difficult — the incentive movement created by the fan or other device. Goryachevozdushnye D. to. with natural circulation of air as the simplest on the device had a wide spread occurance in troops during the Great Patriotic War.

In gas chambers as the disinfecting agent apply various gases: sulphurous anhydride, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, chloropicrin, etc. In the USSR gas chambers are used seldom, preferential for disinfection of products which cannot be processed in thermal cameras.

The combined D. to. are adapted for disinfection of things by several agents, napr, by water vapor, vapor-air mixture and formaldehyde.

To. happen stationary and mobile. The first are used in to lay down. - professional, institutions, the second — in epid, the centers, and also in field conditions. Some mobile D. to. are equipped with the shower device for washing of people along with disinfection of their clothes. Such installations carry the name of disinfection and shower.

To. infectious, maternity homes would be equipped and others to lay down. - professional, institutions, and also medical institutions of the Soviet Army. To. use also the industrial enterprises occupied with processing of raw materials (fur, skin, etc.).

Disinfection devices using steam and a hot air appeared in Russia in the second half of 19 century. At the end of 1883 in St. Petersburg at barrack-type in S. P. Botkin's memory the building of the first steam D. would be built to., equipped with the boiler and two disinfection devices. The same year the manager of this camera S.E. Krupin offered the disinfection device from boiler iron which received the name of the steam-heating disinfection chamber of Krupin used and presently.

Steam-heating chambers as the safest disinfection devices were widely used in Russia. However disinfection of the leather, fur and other things which are not maintaining high temperature and humidity in steam-heating chambers is excluded. At the end of 19 century I. F. Rapchevsky, M. Rubner, etc. offered vakuumparoformalinovy cameras which at the beginning of 20 century had a wide spread occurance in Russia. Then it seemed that use of steam with a diminished pressure and formaldehyde for strengthening of the disinfecting action it will help to resolve an objective. However the operating experience vacuum paroformalinovykh cameras showed that they are dear in production, are difficult in operation and do not provide mass disinfection of outerwear. In 1904 — 1905 the Japanese researchers offered the paroformalinovy method of disinfection providing carrying out disinfection in cameras, rather simple on a design.

In 1909 in Odessa the first steam D. was constructed to., working with a standard atmospheric pressure. In 1912

S. K. Dzerzhgovskiya, unlike the Japanese cameras, suggested to enter steam into the camera from below that provided uniform warming up of clothes at its more dense loading.

Great October socialist revolution was a critical stage in development of disinfection matter in the country. From first months of the activity bodies of health care of the young Soviet republic were engaged in the organization of disinfection matter in the country. From year to year the number of specialized disinfection institutions grew, and together with it also the number D. grew to. Much attention was paid to D.'s equipment to. BC.

In the 30th researches in the field of chamber disinfection were carried out to the USSR. Soviet researchers (H. M. Anastasyev, K. A. Burtsev, G. A. Michelson, etc.) developed a method of disinfection by vapor-air mixture (without use of formalin) the cloth, woolen and cotton clothes infected with vegetative and sporous forms of microorganisms. Formalin in D. to. it is used only at disinfection of kozhanomekhovy products. The equipment of steam-air disinfection chambers powerful steam boilers of V. G. Shukhov, P. I. Ryabova allowed to increase considerably the capacity of cameras due to their more dense loading and reduction of time necessary by warming up of clothes.

L. A. Pogorzhelsky in the late thirties developed stationary D. to. of 10 m 3 for disinfection, disinsection and decontamination of clothes, bedding and other things. Warming up of the processed objects was carried out by the steam brought from below or a moving hot air. Loading capacity of the camera is 30 sets of outerwear. By the same principle also stationary D. was arranged to., offered at the beginning of the 30th by Ya. B. Levinson and N. F. Chernoshchekov. These cameras had quite big distribution, however were expensive in production, are difficult in service therefore their release in 1941 was stopped.

A. G. Makarov, A. N. Karasyova, A. A. Subbotin and others in post-war years developed paroformalinovy stationary D. to. of 3,5 and 10 m 3 , expected the centralized steam supply. The same authors developed stationary D. to. of 1,5 and 3 m 3 , equipped with own steam generator of open type heated by firewood.

From mobile D. to. the camera of agrarian and industrial complex (on the car) developed in NIISI at the beginning of the 30th had the greatest distribution. (A. K. Krylov, D. D. Muzykantov, M. L. Hamburg). Operation of the camera of agrarian and industrial complex during the Soviet-Finnish war showed that the direct-flow copper does not provide it required amount of steam. Therefore at the beginning of the 40th the direct-flow copper was replaced with a copper with natural circulation (P. I. Ryabov). In such look the camera of agrarian and industrial complex was issued till 1963. This installation during war equipped the obmyvochno-disinfection companies which were carrying out sanitary cleaning of staff of troops in the army and front back.

During the Great Patriotic War D. was designed to. on the uniaxial trailer — DKP (P. I. Ryabov, N. I. Komin) which gained big distribution. In the same years by forces of bodies air D., various on a design and the sizes, were under construction of the materials found on site to. Usually such camera disinsector represented the device consisting of the room for loading of clothes (the working camera), the fire heating device installed in the camera and heated by firewood of devices for attemperation and protection of clothes against combustion.

A. P. Protopopov and N. V. Ostapenya in 1942 developed the elementary disinsection cameras with soft fabric barriers of walls and roofs. In one option army groundsheets, in another — the overcoats which are exposed to disinsection are used. V. A. Goryushin and A. A. Subbotin the same year successfully found the constructive solution of the easy folding disinsection camera of small volume which was widely adopted enough at the front under the name of the DIOF-21 camera.

P. I. Vasilevsky and A. N. Krasovsky in 1943 designed and organized release of the elementary disinsection camera with the device for heating of water — BDLI (bathing and disinsection and laundry installation).

During the post-war period the combined disinfection and shower installations on cars and automobile trailers were modernized and equipped with more powerful steam boilers. In new disinfection and shower installations by 2 — 2,5 times density of loading of the camera is increased by cloth and paper regimentals, time of achievement of temperature of disinfection is sharply reduced at the expense of what the capacity of the camera increased by 2,5 — 3 times.

In the late sixties — the beginning of the 70th. All-Union research in-volume of disinfection and sterilization and the Central design design and technological office «Medoborudovaniye» the new disinfection installations on cars equipped with a special cabin for team of disinfectors and stationary D. are developed and implemented in production to. of 1,7 — 8,3 m 3 .

Fig. 1. The disinfection KDF-3 paroformalinovy chamber (the camera is open): 1 — a niche with mercury thermometers; 2 — the operating console; 3 — the cart for clothes; 4 — the ventilating device.
Fig. 2. A disinfection stationary chamber with a copper of DKSK-1,8: 1 — the camera; 2 — a steam boiler; 3 — the manual pump; 4 — a steam line.

Stationary disinfection chambers (tab. 1). The disinfection KDF-3 paroformalinovy chamber (fig. 1) expected steam supply from network represents the steel structure consisting of a framework, an internal and outside covering with an air gap between them for reduction of heat waste to the environment. The loading and unloading doors forming face walls of the camera densely nestle on a framework folding bolts. Under a ceiling the steel umbrella protecting clothes from drops of condensate is established.

The disinfected clothes placed on the cart get warm in the camera the steam arriving through the perforated pipes located on a floor. There are also pipes for subdrying of things in the camera.

The Pritochny air vent is made below, exhaust — in a ceiling. The fan is mounted on a roof of the camera.

Gates of steam supply in the camera and a heater, the evaporator of formalin, and also the mouth, through to-ruyu is filled in formalin in the evaporator, are established on the operating console. Over it the mercury thermometer is installed.

The disinfection stationary chamber with a copper of DKSK-1,8 (fig. 2) is welded from steel sheets and surrounded with hoops from angle steel. Wooden whetstones which are sheathed by sheets of plywood and roofing steel are attached to hoops. The air gap between walls of the camera and an outside covering serves as heat insulation. Steam comes to the camera through the perforated pipes representing the closed rectangle.

Formation of excessive pressure in the camera is excluded by the fact that in a floor openings for an exit of condensate which shall be always open are made. The clothes which are put on on a coat hanger are hanged out on the strings stretched under a ceiling. For protection it from drops of condensate of steam under a ceiling the umbrella is strengthened.

Temperature in the camera is taken by the thermometer inserted outside into the unscrewing frame. The camera is issued both in a complex with a copper, and without copper under the code of DKS.

The disinfection stationary KDFO-2 formalin chamber is issued with the SZM-1 boiler expected the low pressure of steam (to 0,7 kgfs/cm 2 ).

Fig. 3. Disinfection KDF-5A paroformalinovy chamber: 1 — the camera; 2 — the added block; 3 — operating handles; 4 — the manometer; 5 — buttons of start-up; 6 — the temperature controller.

The disinfection KDF-5 A paroformalinovy chamber (fig. 3) — the biggest on volume a stationary chamber. Set-point temperature of disinfection and dwell time of things in this camera are supported automatically; there is also a manual control the camera.

Disinfection of things in the KDF-5 A camera is made in the following order. Connect the camera to the power supply network, load it things (from a «dirty» zone), close a door and give a signal in «pure» department. Here, having received a signal, on a contact thermometer establish contacts indexes on the marks corresponding to temperature of the set mode, and in a short-time switch establish exposure time. After that press the button of the mode and start up steam in the camera. On reaching required temperature in the camera the alarm lamp lights up that means the beginning of exposure. At the end of exposure the alarm lamp is switched off, and the audible signal is given. Having finished disinfection, start subdrying of things for what start up steam in a heater and turn on the fan. In 15 min. open a door in a «pure» zone and roll out the cart with things.

Fig. 4. Disinfection TsNIDI electric chamber: 1 — an exhaust air duct; 2 — the instrument assembly; 3 — a stitched air vent; 4 — the camera.

The disinfection TsNIDI electric chamber (fig. 4) having the steam generator is used in institutions where there is no boiler room; it is intended for disinfection of books, documents and other things by a steam-air method, and also for disinfection of clothes and bedding by steam-air and paroformalinovy methods. The camera is manufactured of metal. The framework welded from angle steel is sheathed on both sides by thin sheet steel. In an interval between a covering there is a heat-insulating material. In two opposite walls of the camera the apertures closed hermetically by doors are made. In the bottom of the camera the steam generator which represents the open baking sheet filled by water is located. At the bottom of a baking sheet the closed electric heating elements («ten») are placed. For evaporation of formalin or spirit of ammonia there are two floating trays evaporators. Formalin (or spirit of ammonia) is filled in through a funnel, warmed up through the bottom of a tray adjoining to a boiling water and evaporates. The moistened air in the camera is dried by the electric heaters placed in the bottom of the camera. Inclusion and their switching off, and also electric heaters of a steam generator allows to maintain the necessary temperature and humidity in the camera. Attemperation in the camera is made also by means of pritochnovytyazhny ventilation. The control of the electrocamera is made manually or automatically by means of the special device thermosignalling device. Humidity in the camera is controlled by means of the psychrometer.

Area of a floor of the electric camera of 0,9 m 2 , volume is 1,3 m 3 .

Fig. 5. Disinfection KDP-3 steam-heating chamber: 1 — the case of the camera; 2 — manovakuummetr; 3 — the thermometer (shows temperature in the camera); 4 — the thermometer (shows temperature in an outgoing pipe); 5 — the evaporator of formalin; 6 — a support of the camera.

The disinfection KDP-3 steam-heating chamber (fig. 5) is used preferential in maternity homes for disinfecting of bedding by a steam method. The camera is adapted also for disinfection of various things by steam-air and paroformalinovy methods; it can be used for sterilization of linen, a dressing material, etc. In the KDP-3 camera it is possible to disinfect (by a paroformalinovy method) the leather, fur, rubber, velvet, kapron and other goods which are not maintaining high temperature.

Fig. 6. Disinfection paroformalinovy stationary chamber of KDFS-5: 1 — the fan; 2 — gates of start-up of steam; 3 — thermometers; 4 — the camera; 5 — the cart for clothes.

The disinfection paroformalinovy stationary chamber of KDFS-5 (fig. 6) consists of the steel folding framework spread from sides by the brick forming walls of the camera, and from above is blocked by a steel concrete plate (ceiling). From the inside of a wall and a ceiling are heat-insulated plates from foamglass or other material. A floor in the camera is a little raised concerning half of the room. Between a floor and a base plate there is a ceramsite filling for the purpose of heat insulation. In the middle of a floor there is a ladder for removal of condensate from the camera. On a floor perforated pipes for start-up of steam and two corners are located, on the Crimea the cart with the disinfected things moves. Under a ceiling of the camera the duo-pitch umbrella which protects the processed things from condensate is fixed. For subdrying of the processed things the positive-pressure ventilation with heating of air consisting of the fan blower, a heater and air ducts is provided in the KDFS-5 camera. Instrumentations and gates of management of thermal process are placed on the instrument assembly.

The KDP-3 camera has the cylindrical form; for reduction of heat waste it is revetted with wooden laths. The disinfected objects are hanged out or keep within in bulk on the mobile carriage. To force out all air from the camera (at a steam method), steam is brought from above, and air is taken away from below. Below under the carriage perforated pipes for start-up of steam from below (are located at steam-air and paroformalinovy methods of disinfection) and a heater. Air and steam delete from the camera with a steam ejector. Temperature of steam in an outgoing pipe is taken by the thermometer. The second thermometer shows temperature in the camera. Pressure in the camera and degree of rarefaction, created by the ejector, is measured by the vacuum gage. The safety valve limits formation of pressure in the camera over admissible (1 at).

The KDFS-5 and KDFS-10 cameras belong to the stationary chambers which are under construction on site. Both cameras on a design are identical, differ in only sizes.

Mobile disinfection caravans (tab. 2) are used in epid, the centers and in field conditions.

Components of mobile disinfection caravan are: the mobile base (the car, the trailer), the working camera, in a cut disinfect things, a steam boiler (a source of heat), the steam lines connecting a copper to the camera. Depending on mobile base mobile disinfection caravans are subdivided into installations on cars and installations on trailers. Disinfection installations on cars have a cabin for transportation of disinfectors.

Fig. 7. The disinfection UD-2-A installation on the GAZ car 52-04: 1 — the camera; 2 — a cabin for disinfectors.

The disinfection UD-2-A installation (fig. 7) is mounted on the chassis of the GAZ car - 52-04. A cabin for transportation of disinfectors and boiler department are placed ahead directly behind a cabin of the driver, the camera is located behind across the chassis of the car. In boiler department the KPP-30 boiler and the service equipment necessary for its service is installed. Steam is used for warming up of things in the camera, evaporations of formalin and spirit of ammonia, spraying of liquid fuel in the course of its burning, strengthening of draft in a flue. All gates with cliches indexes are concentrated on the instrument assembly.

Fig. 8. The disinfection UD-2 H installation 2-A on the GAZ car - 52-01: 1 — cameras; 2 — a cabin for disinfectors.

The disinfection UD-2 H installation 2-A (fig. 8) on the chassis of the GAZ car - 52-01 is equipped with two identical cameras and more powerful KPP-90 boiler.

Fig. 9. The disinfection UD-2-P installation on the IAPZ-738 trailer.

The disinfection UD-2-P installation (fig. 9) is mounted on the chassis of the uniaxial automobile IAPZ-738 trailer. The camera for improvement of running properties of installation is located along a frame of the trailer.

The mobile disinfection and shower caravans (tab. 3) mounted on the chassis of cars and automobile trailers are intended for washing of people and disinfection (disinsection) of clothes, footwear, bedding and other things in field conditions. Washing of people and disinfection (disinsection) of clothes with use of disinfection and shower installations are made at the same time or separately.

Fig. 10. The disinfection and shower DDA-53B installation on the GAZ car - 66: 1 — the RI-ZM boiler; 2 — disinfection chambers.

The disinfection and shower DDA-53, DDA-53A and DDA-53B installations (fig. 10) are mounted on the chassis of cars according to GAZ-51, GAZ-63 and GAZ-66. Installations are equipped with a steam boiler, two disinfection chambers, the paroelevatorny shower device with the boiler accumulator, the manual pump and an injector for food of a copper water, system of pipelines, and also laying with removable accessories and spare parts. Disinfection chambers are structurally executed equally and work independently one from another. In the curtailed and marching provision of settings of the camera use for storage and transportation of accessories and spare parts. Each camera is equipped with two doors. The door located at the left on the course of the car serves for loading of things, and a door on the right — for unloading. The clothes in the camera are warmed up the steam arriving on the pipeline from a copper-. For uniform warming up of clothes on a floor on its perimeter the closed steam line sprayer, over it — the wooden lattice protecting the long and accidentally fallen things from moistening by condensate is located. In a floor of the camera two openings through which there is steam with an excessive pressure in the camera are made, and also the condensate which is flowing down on a floor merges. Disinfection of fur, leather, rubber and other goods is made in the camera at low temperatures. Formalin in the sprayed or vaporous look is applied to strengthening of the disinfecting effect of vapor-air mixture at these temperatures. Evaporation of formalin is made by steam in the special device. Vapors of formaldehyde which are formed during the boiling of formalin come to the camera via the perforated pipeline used for supply of water vapor. Temperature in cameras is taken direct mercury thermometers.

The shower device for washing of people (it is developed in tents or the adapted room) consists of a steam-ejecting elevator, the boiler accumulator, two shower devices on 6 grids everyone which are soaking up and pressure hoses, underfoot wooden lattices. The boiler accumulator is intended for additional bystry (in 2 — 3 min.) heating of water up to the required temperature (38 — 42 °) and its maintenance at this level during the whole time of washing of change of people. Besides, the boiler accumulator ensures reliable and safe functioning of the paroelevatorny shower device (the steam-out and condensate through grids is excluded), creates accumulation of nek-ry amount of heat, supplies a copper with the warmed-up water; it can be used for heating of a cold water to any temperature.

Management of disinfection and shower installation is conducted on the right side (on the course of the car). For convenience of service gates and cranes are concentrated at a steam boiler. Principle of action of the disinfection and shower DDA-53 installation following. The manual pump fill a copper with water to the middle of water-indicating glass. Then kindle firewood in a fire chamber and lift steam pressure in a copper. At achievement of pressure into 1 am pass to heating of a copper with liquid fuel. Having lifted steam pressure to the worker (4 am), start up steam in an elevator and pump heated water on shower tests. At the same time steam can be started up in one or both disinfection chambers for disinfection of clothes. Steam formed in a copper is used also for motivation of draft (by means of a steam siphon) and food of a copper by water (by means of an injector).

The DDA disinfection and shower installation - 2 is mounted on the ZIL-130 car, has more powerful equipment and is in addition completed with a motor-pump and rubber retention reservoirs of water.

The disinfection and shower DDA-66 installation is placed in the metal body divided into three departments: boiler, chamber and passenger-and-freight, located directly behind a cabin of the driver.

Fig. 11. Disinfection and shower DDP-2 installation: 1 — the RI-2 boiler M; 2 — the boiler accumulator; 3 — a laying box; 4 — the camera.
Fig. 12. Goryachevozdushny disinsection camera of recreation center: 1 — the camera; 2 — a door of an air vent; 3 — a step; 4 — the basis; 5 — a door of a fire chamber; 6 — a flue.
Fig. 13. Disinsection DIOF-21 camera: 1 — the fabric barrier forming walls of the camera; 2 — a framework; 3 — the cast-away wall (from fabric) cameras; 4 — clothes; 5 — the heating device.
Fig. 14. Plan of the disinsection camera dugout: 1 — loading department; 2 — the camera; 3 — unloading department; 4 — an oven; 5 — the protecting grid; 6 — a spherical pipe; 7 — an entrance (on the right) and an exit (at the left) from the camera.

The disinfection and shower DDP-2 installation (fig. 11) is mounted on the uniaxial trailer, has the same equipment, as DDA-53, but only one camera.

Goryachevozdushny disinsection cameras use for disinsection of clothes, bedding and other things; in field conditions they are applied to drying of clothes, footcloths, valyany footwear. The acting thermal agent in cameras is the dry air heated to t ° 80 — 110 °. Use the devices of various designs produced most often on site with use of roofing sheet steel, water pipes, heating radiators, etc. to heating of air. Heating devices shall have a sufficient surface to provide disinsection of things at the scheduled time. Components of the air disinsection chamber are: the room for loading of clothes (the working camera), the heating device, devices for attemperation of air in the camera and protection of clothes against combustion. In the Great Patriotic War the elementary goryachevozdushny S-1 disinsectors, Rubenstein's disinsector, disinsectors tents, BDPU-18, Nabokov's camera, etc. gained big distribution. All of them lost the value.

The Goryachevozdushny disinsection camera of recreation center (fig. 12) consists of the separate boards forming the loading room and the basis in which the fire chamber and a heater are placed; the flue is located outside of the camera. For protection of clothes from direct influence of a radiating heat over a fire chamber and a heater steel screens are installed. Heat output by a heater in the camera is regulated by means of two gates located from a fire chamber. The camera has the stitched and exhaust air vents promoting the movement of the heated air that improves warming up of clothes. Area of a floor of the camera of 1,6 m 2 , volume is 2,4 m 3 , surface of the heating device of 2,8 m 2 . Norm of loading — 10 sets of clothes. Weight is 280 kg. The sizes in the working position: width is 1440 mm, length is 1525 mm, height is 2410 mm.

Among easy disinsection cameras (70 kg) of small volume (0,8 m 3 ) on 3 — 4 sets of clothes the DIOF-21 camera (fig. 13) produced from strong fabrics in the form of the bag suspended to a framework had distribution. One sidewall is made leaning back. The heating device is put into the bunker located under the camera.

Disinsector tent from groundsheets allows to process at the same time 10 — 12 sets of clothes. The framework consisting from central and angular racks (stakes) which are driven in into the earth forms the basis of a tent. Top ends of stakes are connected on diagonal by inclined beams. The furnace temporary barracks placed in a ditch is protected with a steel sheet, over the Crimea the lattice from poles protecting clothes from a podgoraniye is located.

The Goryachevozdushny disinsection cameras dugouts used in wartime are calculated by a pas one-time loading of 10 and more sets of regimentals. They were used not only for disinsection, but also for drying of clothes, footcloths, footwear. The elementary disinsection camera dugout represented a small ditch (up to 2 m in depth) to which the felling fell. If on local conditions it was impossible to make a felling - then the walls of a ditch dug with a slope protected with boards, poles, a wattle fence, etc. and covered with clay. For heating of air furnaces temporary barracks, petrol barrels adapted for a fire chamber, or the steel sheets blocking rovik (fire chamber) and narrow flutes (flues) served. Flue gases from a fire chamber were taken away on the pipe made of roofing steel, a brick, etc.

More difficult in construction, but also more perfect is the disinsection camera-zemlyanka (fig. 14). The room of a dugout is divided two cross partitions into three departments: loading, camera and unloading. A floor is condensed with filling brick, slag, etc. For illumination of prechamber departments in face walls at a ceiling windows are made. Heating is made by the heating device consisting of the brick oven established in unloading department and a spherical pipe to dia. 220 mm, edges pass at walls of the camera and leaves back in unloading department. Here the spherical pipe is connected to the flue removed through a roof outside. The Zharovy pipe partially or is completely protected with the metal gauze or a wooden lattice. Its site at distance of 1,5 m from a fire chamber is screened a steel sheet. For hanging out clothes under a ceiling laths with hooks are fixed. The Pritochny air vent is made at doors of unloading department, exhaust — in a ceiling; the vent pipe is blocked by a shiber.

Ground rules of disinfection of things in disinfection chambers. Disinfection of objects in D. to. it is carried out according to the instruction approved by m 3 USSR, and passport of the camera. Before work technical condition of D. shall be checked to. and instrumentations. Processing in steam-air cameras of wet things is not allowed; they shall be previously dried.

Before loading things into the camera, check openings in a floor for a drain of condensate and the message with the atmosphere; it is impossible to work if these openings are closed. Then check steam lines and operability of a nozzle or the evaporator of formalin if disinfection of leather and fur products is supposed. Before loading of the first party of things the camera is warmed up (behind closed doors) to t ° 70 — 80 ° within 10 min. Pockets of clothes exempt from matches, lighters, pens, money and other objects which can be spoiled during the processing in the camera.

Things load into the camera evenly. The norm of loading and temperature of disinfection depend on forms of microorganisms, the mode of disinfection, material, from to-rogo things (wool, cotton etc.) are made. At disinfection and disinsection of cotton and woolen things norm of loading on 1 m 2 the effective area of a floor of the camera — 10 sets (60 kg) in stationary steam-air chambers and 25 sets (150 kg) in the mobile disinfection and shower caravans equipped with powerful steam boilers. Norm of loading of leather and fur things — 4 — 5 sets (24 — 30 kg) on 1 m 2 . The short fur coat is considered for one set.

Temperature of disinfection: 80 — 90 ° for disinsection and disinfection of the cotton and woolen things infected with vegetative forms of microorganisms, and 97 — 98 ° for disinfection of the same things infected with sporous forms of microorganisms; 57 — 59 ° for disinfection of leather, fur and rubber things. Duration of rise in temperature in the loaded camera shall be not less than 5 min.

At a set-point temperature of disinfection of a thing in the camera are maintained during certain time (exposure), a cut depends on forms of microorganisms, material, the mode of disinfection.

At disinsection of cotton and woolen things exposure of 5 min., leather and fur — 30 — 90 min.

At disinfection of cotton and woolen things exposure of 10 — 45 min., depending on the nature of an infection; leather and fur things — from 45 to 210 min. at t ° 57 — 59 °.

Disinfection of leather and fur things is made with the formalin entered into the camera after rise in temperature to a preset value or is a little lower. Norm of formalin on 1 m 3 loading room: 75 ml at disinfection of the things infected with vegetative forms of microorganisms and 250 ml — sporous. Disinsection of these things is made without formalin. Norm of the spirit of ammonia entered into the camera for neutralization of formalin twice less.

Steam D. to. load at the rate of 8 sets (48 kg) on 1 m 3 volume of the camera. In these cameras loading of things in nodes, parcels and even in bulk is allowed. Temperature in the camera is maintained in limits 110 — 111 ° that corresponds to pressure of 0,5 am on the manometer. Exposure: 40 min. at disinfection of the things infected with vegetative forms of microorganisms, 90 min. — for the things infected with sporous forms of microorganisms, and 10 min. at disinsection.

In air chambers of a thing are hanged out seldom — 5 sets (30 kg) on 1 m 2 areas of a floor of the camera. Exposure — not less than 30 min. In these cameras fire safety regulations shall be followed strictly.

See also Disinsection , Disinfection .



  • From podsushky clothes a hot air after its disinfection.



Bibliography: Vashkov V. I. Disinfection, disinsection and deratization, M., 1956, bibliogr.; Ryabov P. I. Mobile steam boilers, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Ryabov P. I. and Uzvalok M. A. Mobile disinfection and shower caravans, M., 1970.

P. I. Ryabov.