DISINFECTION (the fr. des-prefix destruction, removal + an infection) — the section of epidemiology studying and developing means and ways of destruction of causative agents of infectious diseases, their carriers, and also rodents; in narrow sense understand removal, destruction of causative agents of infectious diseases in the environment as D.
Since ancient times of people aimed to protect himself from diseases, especially infectious for what were undertaken various a gigabyte. actions, including disinfecting. In the Egyptian monument of culture 17 — 14 centuries BC. To «The book of the dead» a row a gigabyte is mentioned. measures which can be carried to disinfecting. In Homer's «Odyssey» (10 — 9 centuries BC) it is told about sulfurizing for the purpose of disinfecting. In India in 9 — 3 centuries BC applied fumigating by herbs, sulfur, saltpeter, etc. In the Novgorod and Pskov chronicles (14 century) it is reported about fires as to a measure of fight against plague.
D. S. Samoylovich at the end of 18 century was engaged in check of efficiency of «smoking powders» as desinfectants, carried out disinfecting of the plague centers. In 1806 in St. Petersburg there was a book «About Means to a Blagotvoreniye of Air and Disgust of an Infection», in a cut more than 30 various substances were recommended. Since the beginning of 19 EL in Russia it began to be carried out already widely; were used salt to - that, chlorine, potassium permanganate, green vitriol, etc.
Bakteriol. the opening of the end of 19 century which proved a microbic etiology of infectious diseases were a powerful incitement for development of scientific bases of. The large contribution to D.'s development in Russia was made A. P. Dobroslavin — experimental D.'s founder, S.E. Krupin is the head of school of the Russian disinfectionists, the large organizer and the designer of the disinfection equipment, V. A. Levashev who developed a number of methods D. and organized the Russia's first courses of disinfectors (1908), F. F. Erisman who offered a number of methods of disinfecting.
In Russia at the end of 19 century the first disinfection chambers appeared: in Odessa (1874), in St. Petersburg (1879), in Moscow (1889), and by the beginning of 20 century disinfection chambers were available already in many large cities.
After Great October socialist revolution premises for elimination of infectious diseases in our country were created. Bodies of the Soviet health care from the very first days of the activity began to pay much attention to development of disinfection business. In December, 1917. The Petrograd Council of working and soldier's deputies made the decision on creation in Petrograd of independent disinfection establishment. Similar institutions were organized in other cities of the country (Baku, Nizhny Novgorod, Saratov, Tiflis, Poltava, Yalta, etc.). For training in 1924 the department at VMA was organized disinfection. Took active part in work of this department Ya. L. Okunevskiya — the author of the five-volume guide to disinfection, the founder and the head of department of disinfection of VMA.
The big role in development of the theory of D. was played by P. A. Patsanovspy and T. E. Boldyrev.
In 1933 it was created Moscow by in-t of disinfection, in 1938 renamed in Central research disinfection by in-t (TsNIDI), and in 1969 — in All-Union research in in-t of disinfection and sterilization (VNIIDIS) of M3 of the USSR (see. Research institutes .)
The practical institutions which are carrying out disinfection (and also disinsection and deratization) actions, are disinfection stations (see. Disinfection station ) and disinfection departments (departments) of SES of all categories (see. Sanitary and epidemiologic station ). Disinfection works are carried out by disinfectors (see. Disinfector ) under the direct management of dezinstruktor (see. Dezinstruktor ), and the methodical management, the organization and control are carried out by doctors-disinfectionists (at disinsection — entomologists, at deratization — zoologists).
In fight against infectious diseases of animal D. also plays a part. Therefore along with D. medical there is D. veterinary.
Distinguish two types of D.: preventive and in epid, the center, edges, in turn, is divided into current and final (tab.).
Preventive disinfection is carried out irrespective of existence of infectious diseases with the purpose to prevent accumulation and distribution of causative agents of diseases in the environment and to destroy carriers. Preventive D. is carried out in places of constant accumulation of a large number of people: at stations, in trains, by steamships, in the subway, in the markets, in child care facilities and schools, in medical institutions (policlinics, laboratories, etc.), in hotels, hostels, in public bathrooms, etc. This type of D. self-supporting departments of preventive disinfection carry out a dignity. - epid, and disinfection stations. In some cases preventive D. is carried out by the enterprises and institutions by own efforts. Neutralization of drinking water in water supply systems and pasteurization of milk belongs to preventive D.
Treatment-and-prophylactic institutions carry out disinfecting of air by black light lamps, filtering of air or chemical means (triethylene glycol, milk to - that, etc.).
In institutions, workshops of the enterprises, hostels and apartments for prevention of respiratory infections air rooms, make wet cleaning with use of 0,5 — 1% of solution of lime chloride or 0,2 — 1% of solution of chloroamine. Soft things (carpets, portieres, covers, blankets etc.) beat out and shake out in the open air or clean the vacuum cleaner.
Preschool institutions carry out daily wet cleaning of rooms by warm water with soap or soda; harvest material every time is previously disinfected boiling or desinfectants. For each children's group allocate the certain dining room and tea-things. Rubber nipples after use boil within 15 min., store in the closed glasswares, to-ruyu also disinfect.
At schools preventive D. consists of daily wet cleaning (warm water and pure harvest material), wet chemical disinfection of bathrooms or their washing, long airing of classes.
At the food enterprises and at catering establishments the equipment, stock and ware after power tool cleaning are disinfected boiling, more rare in the wet chemical way. Packs for the cabin of meat salt, as required cut, and sostrugivat a surface of finishing tables. Buckets and tanks for collecting garbage upon termination of work wash out solution of soda, and then rinse with hot water. Spittoons, ballot boxes after cleaning disinfect in the wet chemical way. Walls in rooms where store products, are bleached at least 2 times a year by 20% chlorine-lime milk.
In utility institutions (baths, hairdressing salons, hostels, hotels) preventive disinfection is carried out as follows. In baths make wet and mechanical cleaning in breaks and upon termination of works using hot soap and soda solutions. In hairdressing salons of the machine for a hairstyle wipe with the cotton wool moistened with alcohol and carry out several times over a flame of a torch. Shaving-brushes disinfect in disinfection institutions or wash out every time after shaving in warm water and immerse for 5 — 10 min. in 4% solution of formalin, and then in abrupt boiled water. Metal combs after the use wash a water jet, wipe with cotton wool with alcohol or boil within 15 min. Combs from plastic wash out water and wipe with the cotton wool moistened with alcohol. Scissors, tools for manicure and other metal objects after each use wash and boil, and those from them which spoil from boiling, wash water and wipe with the cotton wool moistened with alcohol or immerse the solution of hydrogen peroxide containing 0,5% of surfactant (detergent) in 3%.
Linen (sheets, napkins, towels and so forth) and overalls of personnel (dressing gowns, kerchiefs, caps) are sent to a laundry. Grids for hairstyles after each use boil. The workplace (a podzerkalnik, a chair, a floor) is processed by 3 — 5% solution of chloroamine. In hairdressing salons carry out wet cleaning several times a day.
Rooms of hostels and hotels daily remove in the wet way. At least once a month make clear-out of rooms, a vytryakhivaniye and airing of bedding. Spittoons daily empty, wash out hot water with soap; the general bathrooms
during the day several times remove in the wet way, by the end of day of a seat of the general bathrooms plentifully irrigate 0,5% with the clarified solution of lime chloride with the subsequent (in half an hour) washing by warm water. Harvest material for bathrooms shall be separate, it needs to be disinfected daily boiling. In washing rooms do wet cleaning at least 3 times a day after morning and evening washing and in afternoon.
At the enterprises for preparation, storage and processing of animal raw materials preventive D. is carried out by solutions of the chloric drugs containing 5% of active chlorine, 10% solution of caustic soda, 4% solution of formaldehyde at the rate of 900 ml on 1 sq.m of the area. Slaughters, boyensky platforms and lethal workshops daily clear of dirt and wash hot water. Periodically bleach walls of the room of 10 — 20% chlorine-lime milk. Skins of animals disinfect at t ° 30 ° in 2,5% solution salt to - you at the rate of 10 l on 1 kg of skins (exposure of 40 hours).
Disinfection of down and a feather is made by fluid steam at t ° 105 ° (exposure of 30 min.); packaging shall be friable and contain no more than 50 kg of raw materials in one bag. Disinfection of the raw materials (a horsehair, down, a feather, wool) infected with disputes of an anthracic stick is carried out by fluid steam at t ° 111 ° (exposure of 70 min.) in the friable packaging containing no more than 20 kg of raw materials in a bag. The bristle infected with disputes is disinfected boiling during 2 hours, and at infection with vegetative forms of microorganisms — within one hour.
The railway, water, motor and air transportation if there are no bases to assume that it is infected, subject a dignity. to cleaning by means of mechanical receptions. Dignity. cleaning of vehicles make every time on the arrival of them after flight to terminal stations, piers, airfields. At the same time it is very important to disinfect previously harvest material (rags, rags, brushes etc.) boiling, washing in running hot water, immersion in disinfecting solutions, it is possible to apply during the cleaning more hot water, to use separate harvest material for cleaning of walls, the equipment, a floor, bathrooms.
At suspicion of infection of vehicles with pathogenic flora carry out disinfecting them with use physical. and chemical means. Rigid cool. - cars, tram cars begin to disinfect with plentiful irrigation of a floor 5% solution of phenol, lysol or 1% solution of chloroamine at the rate of 900 ml on 1 m 2 . Walls, ceilings, benches are washed with the brushes moistened with soap water, solutions of soda, leach. The soft washing things (paths, curtains) presoak in the same disinfecting solutions and then send to washing. Not washing things place in disinfection chambers.
At D. of first-class cool carriages, buses solid surfaces irrigate and wash, as well as in hard-seated cars. Sofas, chairs, mattresses clean vacuum cleaners, and then the brushes moistened with disinfecting liquids and wipe with pure rags. Soft things presoak in disinfecting solutions or send to disinfection chambers.
Commodity cars after transportation of the cattle or raw materials of animal origin at first plentifully irrigate 20% with chlorine-lime milk. After cleaning of the disinfected manure and garbage the car is irrigated from within quadruple with a 30-minute interval by 4% clarified or 1% by the activated solution of lime chloride. After two-hour exposure the car is washed hot water from within.
Airplanes disinfect on special platforms. At first pack all soft things in bags and place in a disinfection chamber. Then 3 — 5% humidify with solutions of phenol or lysol rags and wipe all objects. It is more preferable to disinfect removable objects on the platform. A floor in the airplane, toilet bowls, covers and doors in bathrooms irrigate with the same disinfecting solutions. After two-hour exposure all surfaces are wiped with dry rags.
Disinfection in the epidemic center. The current disinfection is carried out in hospitals or at home in the presence of the patient. This type of D. is made during the whole time of stay of the patient in the room (-tsa, the apartment). Allocations of the patient disinfect after defecation or an urination; ware and the remains of food are boiled after each meal; linen kill in disinfecting solution immediately after change him; several times in days make cleaning of the room with use of washing desinfectants.
The current D. at intestinal infectious diseases does not represent difficulties since removal of activators happens to a stake and urine periodically and is immediately fixed. However infection with sick (carrier) of the objects which are in its use it is not possible to warn. In this regard in individual use of sick (carrier) allocate necessary objects which periodically disinfect.
At respiratory infections use the means allowing to provide disinfecting of air. The effective action should be considered intensive airing of the room. This measure is supplemented with periodic beating and a vytryakhivaniye of soft things. Protection of the looking after persons is reached by carrying protective wadded and gauze or gauze bandages. At a pulmonary tuberculosis of the patient otplevyvat a phlegm in a special spittoon with disinfecting solution.
At diseases of outside covers the current D. consists in disinfecting of objects on which the activators which are contained in pus, scales, crusts and the friend separated the affected skin, mucous membranes and pilar parts of a body could get.
At the current D.'s carrying out in case of leaving of the patient at home or before hospitalization it should be isolated to the certain room or at least in the fenced-off corner; for a nosotrophy one person who shall carry out also the current D. is allocated, during the performance a cut it is possible to use simple, cheap and available means (boiling, washing in running water a brush and soap, a proglazhivaniye the hot iron through wet fabric, etc.). In infectious-tsakh and departments the current D. is a part protivoepid. mode.
Final disinfection is carried out once after removal of sick (carrier) from this room. Need of carrying out it is based that in the center there were infected objects of use and a situation. Before final D.'s carrying out it is necessary to find out what objects can be factors of transfer at this disease whether there are bases to consider them infected. Ways and an order of carrying out shall be chosen. At diseases which causative agents out of a human body perish in short terms (measles chicken pox, epidemic parotitis, etc.), final D.'s need is excluded.
Epidemiol, final D.'s efficiency of subjects is higher, than quicker it will be out after isolation of sick (carrier). Optimum it is necessary to carry out it right after hospitalization of the patient, but not later than in 6 hours in the cities and in 12 hours in rural areas.
Precautionary measures during the carrying out disinfection. The drugs used at D. in this or that, degrees are toxic for the person and animals. During the work with them it is necessary to be careful. Preparation of the concentrated solutions shall be made in the certain room equipped with artificial ventilation. It is impossible to allow teenagers, pregnant women and the nursing women to work on dusting, spraying, production of solutions. During disinfection works it is forbidden to smoke, eat food and water. During breaks it is necessary to take off overalls, to wash hands with warm water with soap, to wash the person and to rinse a mouth.
The persons living in the processed rooms shall leave for the period of D.'s carrying out. Their admission to these rooms is allowed after intensive airing. Use of the things moisturized with chloric drugs is allowed after full drying. Airing of rooms is carried out not less than one hour.
Control of disinfection is based on detection of microflora. From the objects which were exposed to disinfection processing take washouts and bacteriological investigate. It is considered that conditionally pathogenic or nonpathogenic microflora is usually steadier against influences of disinfection drugs, than pathogenic microbes. So, at intestinal infectious diseases the purpose of control researches is detection of colibacillus, at scarlet fever — a hemolitic streptococcus etc.
The negative take of researches of washouts allows to consider that disinfecting is carried out correctly and effectively. The positive take bacterial, researches testifies to defective D.
Disinfection in field conditions
In the Russian army for the first time purposeful disinfection events began to be held during the Russian-Japanese war of 1904 — 1905 when disinfection groups as independent protivoepid, institutions were created. However D. gained the most successful development after Great October socialist revolution. The harmonious system of disinfection matter in the Soviet Army was one of the factors promoting epid, to wellbeing of troops during the Great Patriotic War.
, carried out in field conditions, is one of actions special processing (see). Complexity and difficulty of its carrying out at field accommodation of troops is caused by features of a fighting situation, a condition of weather, and also a variety of character, quantity and the sizes of objects, etc. In field conditions of D. arms, military equipment, defensive works, vehicles, sites of the area and roads, food and fodder, water, individual means of protection, regimentals, footwear, equipment and other objects are exposed. Disinfecting of integuments of the person — see. Cleansing . In field conditions can be preventive and in the center (current and final). At the same time physical are used., the chemical and combined methods.
For D. arms, the equipment and constructions apply lime chloride, an aqueous slurry, dvutretyosnovny salt of calcium hypochlorite (DTSGK), formalin, phenol, lysol and other substances. It is made with use of organic means of the divisions which underwent infection and divisions of chemical troops. For processing of the equipment and arms the crew (calculation) removes from the car (the tank, the armored personnel carrier, etc.) the property and the equipment, stacks it on the platform, clearing of dirt; in the car closes all hatches, gates of air ducts, wind-screens, etc. then makes disinfection of the car, equipment, property, arms. Having ended processing, the equipment and arms are transferred to not infected platform.
Of the area and defensive works it is very labor-consuming and accompanied by a big expense of desinfectants. Therefore D. is exposed not all area and defensive works but only the most important objects: command and observation posts, first-aid posts, entrenchments, trenches, the courses of the message, the shelter for staff, firing positions, passes on the infected sites of the area and a crossing, points of water supply, runways, rulezhny paths, parking lots of airplanes, the territory of warehouses (bases) and entrances to them. Of defensive works, shelters and small sites of the area it can be carried out by dispersal of lime chloride (or DTSGK) with the subsequent watering by water. Of the big areas make divisions of chemical troops with use of special cars — mobile refueling stations (ARS).
The food packed into a container is disinfected wiping or irrigation by disinfecting solutions (drugs of lime chloride) of a surface of a container. Fats, meat disinfect boiling, dry up bread on crackers at t ° 120 °.
Mobile kitchens, the kitchen equipment and stock disinfect drugs of lime chloride and boiling. Water is filtered via organic filters with preliminary coagulating or chlorinated or boiled that is the most effective. An individual deposit of moisture in flasks disinfects special tablets.
Of medical tools, dressing means and other medical property make by boiling, chamber processing, and also a gas method mix of ethylene oxide with methyl bromide. The gas method is used also for D. of documents.
At D.'s carrying out in field conditions additional safety measures as the disease-producing microbes and toxins which are on objects and objects can get with air, water and food to an organism of the persons spending D. Sleduyet shall be observed to avoid unnecessary contact with the infected objects, at their processing not to kick up dust. The most well-tried remedy of protection are the protective clothes (see. Clothes protective ). Of automatic machines, machine guns and grenade launchers carry out in gas masks, protective gloves and stockings; tools, mortars, military equipment — in gas masks, protective raincoats (overalls), protective gloves and stockings or in gas masks and special protective clothes; the same means of protection use at D. of the area and defensive works. The protective clothes are used by disinfectors and hospital attendants — the dusher who are working at the platform of sanitary cleaning and carrying out D. of regimentals, footwear and equipments. In the center of plague of D. it is carried out in an antiplague suit.
Assessment of efficiency of D. with use of the standard control methods is carried out by specialists a dignity. - protivoepid, a platoon medical - a dignity. battalion, and also dignity. - epidemiol. groups, laboratories of hospitals.
Disinfection in the conditions of the civil protection (CP) is carried out for the purpose of destruction of pathogenic microorganisms and bacterial toxins on objects of the environment. Are exposed the infected sites of the territory, transport, the equipment, various constructions, production, office and premises, the equipment and property of the enterprises and institutions, sources of water supply, stocks of food, clothes, footwear and objects.
Various are applied to D. in the conditions of GO desinfectants (see).
Disinfection works are performed by means of the disinfection equipment and the equipment, the vent and utility equipment (decontamination apparatuses, snowplows, water-jetting, harvest and peskorazbrasyvayushchy vehicles), page - x. and construction cars (sprayers, opylivatel, rastvoronasosa, motor-pumps, bulldozers, etc.), and also technical means of other industries of the national economy (production autoclaves, drying chambers and ovens, etc.). Oche D.'s lane of objects is established depending on their importance and natural death of activators in external environment. Is carried out by forces and means of formation of GO (team and group of disinfecting, the station of disinfecting of clothes and transport, stationary obmyvochny points). D.'s carrying out in the room centers and in to lay down. institutions it is carried out mobile anti-epidemic groups (see), SES and disinfection stations, and also population, personnel of the enterprises and institutions.
Bodies of GO can be involved in D.'s carrying out. Providing and equipping of formations with disinfection and technical means is made by heads of the enterprises and organizations on the basis of which they are created. Will be organized by chiefs of GO of administrative territories, the enterprises and institutions. The management and control of work of formations is imposed on headquarters and services GO. The health service of GO gives advisory and methodical help to other services GO on questions D., exercises laboratory control behind D.'s quality
Table. The CURRENT AND FINAL DISINFECTION of SOME OBJECTS AT INDIVIDUAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES
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B. I. Vashkov; B. P. Volgin, H. B. Priests (soldier.), author of the tab. T. I. Istomina.