DINITROBENZENE CHLORIDE, professional harm (2,4 dinitrobenzene chloride, meta-dinitrobenzene chloride) — the toxicant representing rhombic crystals with a slight smell of bitter almonds. Pier. weight (weight) 202,56; t ° pl 53,4 °; t ° kip 315 °. It is almost water-insoluble, it is easily dissolved in alcohol, acetone, fats. It turns out nitration of the mix consisting from about - and n-nitrobenzene chlorides. It is applied in the anilinocolourful industry and by production of explosive substances.
In the form of vapors and dust gets into an organism through airways and skin. Sensitivity to D. is very big, especially after alcohol intake. In view of a small volatility acute prof. of poisoning of D. meet, as a rule, only at emergencies.
D.'s impact on an organism is characterized by irritation of skin and mucous membranes of respiratory tracts and eyes. Is the strongest allergen. The dermatitis developing at contact with D. is followed by an itch, the strongest burning and pain. There comes the general erythema, sometimes hypostases, papular and vesicular rashes.
Toxic action of D. is shown usually in several hours after contact with it. At the victim Tsianotichesky coloring of skin, mucous membrane of lips and a mouth, dacryagogue, a photophobia, a severe headache, dizziness, the general weakness, drowsiness, the complicated breath, cough, the phenomena of bronchitis, laryngotracheitis, in lungs dry rattles, sometimes with an asthmatic component, tachycardia, deaf cardiac sounds are observed; in blood — methemoglobinemia (see). Diseases of a liver meet in isolated cases. At heavy intoxications excitement is noted, the black-out is possible. Idiosyncrasy in a wedge, a picture of poisoning of D. is defeat of a peripheral nervous system (neuralgia, neuritis, radiculitises, neuromyosites).
At hron, D.'s poisoning patients complain of a headache, dizziness, a bad dream, bystry fatigue. Emergence in blood of a significant amount of little bodies of Heinz leads to hypochromia anemia, an anisocytosis, a poikilocytosis. Also epileptiform spasms, increase in reflexes, maniacal attacks are noted.
Maximum allowable concentration in air of workrooms of 1 mg/m 3 .
D.'s definition in air — see. Dinitrotoluene .
First aid and treatment at poisoning
the Victim needs to be brought immediately from the gas-polluted atmosphere, at D.'s hit on skin to wipe an affected area with alcohol or acetone, and then to wash up it warm water with soap. At damage of skin — besides, specific desensitization; in the absence of effect — antihistaminic drugs, hystoglobulin repeated courses. Also the oxygenotherapy (95% of oxygen of +5% of carbon dioxide gas) is carried out. Intravenously — 50 ml of 1% of solution methylene blue. Cardiovascular means — camphor, caffeine, Cordiaminum. Pyramidon, acetphenetidiene, sulfanamide drugs are contraindicated.
Prevention of poisonings
For protection against influence of vapors — the filtering industrial gas mask, from dust — an industrial respirator. Rubber gloves, oversleeves, aprons, boots are applied to protection of skin of hands and legs. Nonspecific are applied the desensibilizing means (see).
For the prevention of poisonings it is necessary to provide mechanization of processes of loading of D. in the equipment and sealing of processes of its fusion.
A contraindication to work with D. are diseases of skin of any etiology.
Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and E. N. Levina, t. 2, page 266, L., 1976; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, etc., page 292, etc., M., 1973; The Guide to occupational health, under the editorship of F. G. Krotkov, t. 2, page 250, M., 1963.
I. D. Gadaskina.