dimethyl formamide, professional harm

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE, professional harm — dimethylamide ant to - you, colorless, flammable liquid with a specific smell; it is applied in production of synfil — Nitron and at organic synthesis as solvent, possesses the local irritating and general and toxic action, t ° kip 153 °; steam tension of 3,7 mm (at t ° 20 °). Let's well dissolve in water and organic solvents, on light does not decay.

Receive D. dehydration of dimethylammonium salt ant to - you or oxo synthesis from dimethylamine.

Assume that D.'s toxicity is caused by influence of both the whole molecule, and its metabolites. Pilot studies on animals showed that the minimum deadly concentration of D. for white mice on two-hour exposure makes 4000 mg/m 3 . D.'s influence in concentration of 300 — 500 mg/m 3 within 6 months (6 weekly for 4 hours daily) leads to development in experimental rats of signs of all-toxic action. Concentration equal of 30-50 mg/m 3 , in the same experimental conditions does not cause signs hron, intoxications. At the two-month posterity received from the rats who were affected by D. in concentration of 600±20 and 50±7 mg/m 3 , functional disturbances of c are found. N of page and liver. Concentration of 10±1,4 and 4±0,4 mg/m 3 , without causing functional and morfol, changes in a maternal organism, lead to disturbance of an embryogenesis.

The main morfol, changes in bodies of experimental animals, the dead and the killed in different terms after D.'s influence, are characterized by defeat of c. N of page, liver, kidneys, and also vascular disorders.

Maximum allowable concentration in air of a working zone of 10 mg/m 3 , in free air of settlements (maximum one-time and average daily) 0,03 mg/m 3 , in water of reservoirs of sanitary and household water use on influence on the general dignity. mode of a reservoir of 10 mg/l. Belongs to the second class of danger.

D.'s detection is higher than 10±5 mg/l in urine of working testifies about a dignity. trouble.

D.'s definition in air and blood is based on D.'s decomposition by caustic alkali to dimethylamine and its definition with 2,4 dinitrobenzene chloride. Solution at the same time is painted in yellow color. The colorimetric method of definition of D. in urine is based on its interaction with the muriatic hydroxylamine forming in alkaline condition hydroxamic to - that.

Sensitivity of definition: 10 mkg in the analyzed volume.

Clinical picture of acute poisoning Is characterized by the following symptoms: headache, general weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting; the case of motor aphasia and paresis of upper extremities is noted. The persons which were affected by D. in concentration have 80 — 300 mg/m 3 within 1 — 1,5 years, the astenovegetativny syndrome, arterial hypotonia, the dominating signs of functional and organic disturbances of c are revealed. N of page in the form of encephalopathies with preferential defeat of gipotalamostvolovy formations of a brain. At the same time D.'s maintenance in daily test of urine averages 15±5 mg/l. After transfer into work out of contact with D. all phenomena regress soon. Hron, D.'s poisonings almost do not meet.

Treatment poisonings symptomatic. At development of defeat of system of a hemopoiesis (anemia, a leukopenia) — the haemo stimulating therapy.

Prevention poisonings with dimethyl formamide on production also an eye from direct hit on them of D., to performing preliminary and periodic medical examinations comes down to mechanization and sealing of the equipment, the organization of pritochnovytyazhny ventilation, protection of skin.

Bibliography: Bykhovskaya M. S., Ginzburg S. L. and Halizova O. D. Methods of definition of harmful substances in air, page 554, M., 1966; To and-zakevich M. A. Impact of dimethyl formamide on a nervous system of workers of production of synfil Nitron, Doctor, business, No. 6, page 103, 1964; M Ur and in e in and S. I. and d river. Release of dimethyl formamide with urine depending on levels and duration of influence, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 12, page 36, 1975; Stasenkova K. P. About toxicity dimethyl forms yes, in book: Toxicology of new industrial chemical substances, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet and A. A. Kanareevskaya, century 1, page 54, M., 1961; Shevelyova G. A. and Govorchen-k about V. I. K to a question of selectivity of embriotropny effect of dimethyl formamide at inhalation effect in low concentrations, in book: Toxicology of new industrial chemical substances, under the editorship of N. F. Izmerov and And. V. Sanotsko-go, century 14, page 32, M., 1975, bibliogr.; To i m-merle G. E b e n A. Metabolism studies of N, N-dimethylformamide, Int. Arch. Arbeitsmed., v. 34, p. 109, 1975, bibliogr.; Massmann W. Die arbeitshygienische Beurteilung des Dimethylformamids, Zbl. Arbeitsmed., Bd 6, S. 207, 1956, Bibliogr.

K. P. Stasenkova