DIASCHISIS

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DIASCHISIS (grech, to split diaschizo) — a special type of the shock developing in nerve centers owing to the termination of receipt to them exciting impulses because of damage of certain sites of a brain, pomadyashchikhsya close or in a distance (a transneyronalny reperkussivny asinapsiya). The term is offered by K. Monakov in 1914. Unlike usual shock (see), at Krom in bigger or men necks of degree various functions of an organism are broken, at D. shock is limited only defined morfol, structures. On origins of D. it is identical to spinal shock, the nature to-rogo was opened by Ch. Sherrington.

K. Monakov allocated main types of D.: associative, komissuralny, cerebrospinal. He called disorder of functions in the structures connected with patol, the center of the same hemisphere associative. The defeat of one parencephalon causing disorder of function of another contacted komissuralny. At cerebrospinal D. at patients from central hemiplegia (see), resulted from a stroke, the loss of functions of cells of front horns of a spinal cord which is clinically shown lack of tendon jerks and decrease in a muscle tone develops. When D. is eliminated and excitability of motor-neuron is recovered, in the paralyzed muscles there is an increase in a muscle tone and tendon jerks. S. N. Davidenkov (1923) called such state dinamozy. D.'s outcome which is defined by degree of its expressiveness and recovery opportunities of a nervous system was called by K. Monakov schism. D.'s duration depends on the size, character and localization of the center of defeat and on compensatory opportunities of c. N of page and organism in general. The age of the patient and a condition of its cardiovascular system is of great importance. Under unfavorable conditions of D. can not pass, and then it «stiffens in an immovability» (K. Monakov). Example «D. which stiffened in an immovability» is the so-called permanent sluggish hemiplegia, when there is no conditions for recovery of functions of cells of a front horn therefore there is no transition of a sluggish hemiplegia to spastic.

The doctrine about D. helps to understand the mechanism of disorder of functions at various diseases of a nervous system. G. N. Sorokhtin (1968, 1971) proved that insufficient receipt of exciting impulses, deficit of excitement transfers a nervous cell to other level of reactivity, and structurally kept cells lose excitability inherent in them that is clinically shown by various disorders of functions. Deficit of excitement is resulted by a condition of not activity, i.e. D. which is characterized by passive hyperpolarization of these not active, switched-off nervous structures. Everything listed created the new approach to recovery of functions consisting in creation by various methods of the strengthened receipt of exciting impulses to the neurons which are in a condition of.


Bibliography: Sorokhtin G. N. Reaction of excitable systems to deficit of excitement, M., 1968, bibliogr.; M about n a k about S. of Die Lokalisation im Grosshirn, Wiesbaden, 1914.

H. H. Anosov.

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