DIAMINOBENZENE — aromatic, toxicant, the amino compound of benzene existing in three isomeric forms: orto-, meta - and a paraphenylenediamine (ursol). The greatest practical value has a paraphenylenediamine — the colourless crystal flakes which are quickly darkening on air. Pier. weight (weight) 108,14. It is easily alcohol-soluble, ether, it is more difficult in water. It is easily sublimated.
Is applied in the chemical industry at synthesis of dyes, during the coloring of bellows, in production of rubber as the vulcanization accelerator, in the color photo.
Comes to an organism through skin and airways in the form of vapors and dust. The mechanism of action of D. is connected with education in an organism at oxidation of the quinonediimine having the sensibilizing properties. Toxic doses and concentration are definitely not established. The operating doses at contact with skin are not defined. Toxicological D. is characterized as the vascular poison causing a metgemoglobinoobrazovaniye, damage of a liver, kidneys, c. N of page, allergic diseases. At influence of ursol formation of a methemoglobin and the related condition of oxygen insufficiency has smaller value, than the sensibilizing action promoting development of allergic diseases. Damage of bronchial tubes and lungs is most characteristic. At long contact with D. arises rhinitis (see), pharyngitis (see), astmoidny bronchitis, bronchial asthma (see).
Attacks of ursolovy asthma do not differ from attacks of asthma of a nonprofessional origin. In blood the eosinophilia is noted, in a phlegm there are Sharko's crystals — Leyden, filched Kurshmanna, eosinophils. Accurate dependence between emergence of an attack and contact with ursol is characteristic of primary ursolovy bronchial asthma. At hron, D.'s action allergic dermatitis, eczema, conjunctivitis are often observed. From other manifestations note an astenovegetativny syndrome, vascular dystonia, changes of a liver, a tendency to a leukopenia. D.'s use for hair-dyeing in some cases caused nervous breakdowns, sleeplessness, dizziness, weakness, a photophobia, attacks of epileptiform spasms.
Dependence of a disease on contact with D. is established by application and intracutaneous allergy tests (see. Skin tests ).
Treatment D.'s intoxications is defined by a form of a disease. At allergic manifestations — discharge from contact with. Specific desensitization. Course of treatment Dimedrol, drugs of calcium, bromides. Fortifying treatment. Treatment of ursolovy bronchial asthma is carried out by the general principles of treatment of bronchial asthma.
Contraindications to employment in contact with D. are hron, respiratory diseases, asthma, eczema, dermatitis, allergic diseases in the anamnesis, the diseases which are followed by a leukopenia (lower than 4000). To maximum allowable concentration in air of workrooms it is not established. Definition in external environment is based on a kolorimetrirovaniye of the painted solutions which are formed at joint oxidation of D. and aniline. Reaction of organic bases with the violuric to - that is the basis for photometric definition.
Measures of prevention — mechanization of works, rational ventilation, prohibition of use for hair-dyeing, release of the painted bellows from residual pollution of.
Bibliography: Bronstein X. I. Damage of a stomach and intestines at allergic diseases of furriers, the Doctor, business, No. 2, page 91, 1966; Bykhovsny M. S., Ginzburg S. L. and Halizova O. D. Methods of definition of harmful substances in air, page 356, M., 1966; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and E. N. Levina, t. 2, page 309, L., 1976; Some problems of occupational health and professional pathology, under the editorship of E. R. A. Miruedzer, the lane with English, page 67, M., 1960; P and e of N of A. S. and Antonyeva. A. Professional dermatology, M., 1975.
N. K. Kulagina.