DIALECTICS in biology and medicine [Greek dialektike (techne) art to conduct a conversation, a dispute, from dialegomai to conduct a conversation, a dispute; art of the correct partition of life]. — science about the most general laws of development of the nature, society and thinking. The main principle, from to-rogo D. proceeds, the provision that the movement, development is a form and mode of existence of all (without any withdrawal) varieties of the objective world is and that therefore the reason of life of any object (or a class of objects) should be looked for not in external circumstances, and in own development. Determines this internal conditionality of life of any object D. by the concept «self-development», and the source of the last sees in the internal contradictions making contents and essence of life.
D.'s universality as doctrines about development of all objective world causes its value as a method of knowledge of reality through knowledge of historical regularity of development, so, through knowledge of the contradictions which were the reasons of an origin of any specific fact of life. In Marxist-Leninist philosophy of D. as «the most comprehensive, rich with contents and the deep doctrine about development» (W. I. Leni of N, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 26, p. 53) reveals system of laws and categories, all set of ideas of a material world and ways of its knowledge by the person, in Krom the interrelation of the relative and absolute truth is shown.
Being science about general development, D. cannot come down to any private type of development, but also cannot distract from the content of specific developments; it is logical synthesis of this contents. In this sense of D. there is «a doctrine not about external shapes of thinking, and about laws of development of «all material, natural and spiritual things», i.e. development of all specific maintenance of the world and its knowledge, i.e. a result, the sum, a conclusion of history of knowledge of the world» (V. I. Lenin, Philosophical notebooks, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 29, p. 84). From this it follows that D. as a method of knowledge is methodology of all specific sciences. But in such quality of D. acts, without abstracting from the specific maintenance of private sciences, like the formalizing logical methods (e.g., mathematical logic), and in relation to the logical maintenance of specific theoretical problems of science. Quite so it is necessary to understand a subject D. of natural sciences in general, D. of biology and medicine in particular.
The doctrine about D. has long history. In antiquity philosophers (especially Heraclitus) developed understanding of the objective world as eternal process of the change and development which is made by transition of any state to the contrast. The concept «dialectics» contacted originally art of investigation of the truth in the course of dialogue, a dispute. Objective contents was given it by the antique philosopher Platon, though interpreted it idealistically. The big contribution to D.'s development as logicians was brought by Aristotle who revealed and analyzed a number of the main categories D. (form and content, reality and an opportunity, etc.).
The major stage in D.'s development as logicians in domarksovy philosophy during modern times were works of representatives it. classical idealism — Kant, Fichte, Schelling and especially Hegel.
Actually scientific theory of D. as the doctrine about essence and knowledge of self-development of matter, a source to-rogo are the contradictions forming contents of laws of development of a material world, K. Marx, F. Engels and V. I. Lenin created. «In the true sense the dialectics is studying of a contradiction in the essence of objects, not only the phenomena is passing, are mobile, is fluid, entities of things also are separated only by conditional sides, but also» (V. I. Lenin, Philosophical notebooks, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 29, p. 227).
Objective D. inevitably is reflected in process of scientific knowledge. In this regard F. Engels emphasized that «to dialectic understanding of the nature it is possible to come, being forced to it by the collecting facts of natural sciences; but it can be reached easier if to approach dialectic character of these facts with understanding of laws of dialectic thinking» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 20, p. 14). I F. Engels, and V. I. Lenin, speaking about processes of conscious mastering of D. in specific scientific knowledge, in particular in biology and physics, emphasized that assimilation of results of dialectic philosophy can only facilitate a way of objective spontaneous theoretical development in these sciences, it is strong reduce it and warn scientists from metodol. mistakes in generalization of experimental material.
In modern science more and more urgent is the main thesis of materialistic D. about development as self-development, the self-movement of matter. In particular, the leading role of internal contradictions of development reveals achievements of theory of evolution, genetics, molecular biology and other sections of modern biology more and more stoutly.
Modern medicine under the influence of success achieved by different areas of knowledge in studying of the person and as social being and as biol, an organism, it appeared before need of essential review of a row metodol. problems from the point of view of the dialectic concept of development. This concept demands consideration of complete definitions of the person both healthy, and the patient not in his static variety, but as product of formation, in the course to-rogo it only and it can be created systemically as integrity.
This continuous communication of a concept of integrity with a concept of development proved by materialistic D. allows to present a ratio of levels of the organization live as process of their interpenetration, and not only in space, but also in time, including historical time, the leaked evolution. It means, e.g., that studying of hereditary diseases, and also genetic predisposition to these or those diseases is complex, synthetic, including researches at various levels, starting with molecular, and also considering various aspects as actually medico-biol. plan, and social, ecological, ethical etc. The genetics of the person becomes more and more active participant of complex knowledge of the person, in process to-rogo before medicine new opportunities for fuller, complete knowledge of essence of a disease and creation of effective remedies of fight against it open.
In this regard Engels and Lenin's instructions on need of conscious mastering of D. acquire big relevance. Theoretical and practical questions of modern medicine create need of use of complete dialectic approach not only to the person, but also to means of this knowledge. Wide use of methods and concepts of the exact sciences during the studying biol, systems led to rapid development biol, knowledge and naturally related process of activation of theoretical researches in medicine. For the present stage of development medico-biol. knowledge first of all strengthening of interaction of separate methods, increase in specific weight and a role of an experiment, modeling, logical-mathematical ways of a research of live systems is characteristic. Scientific knowledge becomes, on the one hand, more and more thinly specialized, and with another — constantly aims at coverage of the phenomena having the most general meaning aims to reveal the patterns making a basis of functioning of live systems. And here it is shown important metodol.
D. D. role orients a research to comprehensive coverage of the phenomena, the correct understanding of a ratio of the principle of a reduction, i.e. the data difficult to simple, and the principle of integrity in biology and medicine. Widely using a reduction, physical. - the chemical analysis of the elementary interactions which are played at molecular level modern scientific knowledge faces need to strictly consider system organization of processes of life, communication and interaction of live systems at the different levels of the structural and functional organization, their integrity and development.
The medicobiological system is more difficult, the large role in scientific knowledge is played by dialektiko-materialistic methodology. In the conditions of differentiation and specialization (in medicine nowadays there are more than 300 independent sections of knowledge) the need for the generalizing theories because the original scientific theory is always characterized by synthetical character increases, and it can be carried out successfully only by means of a method D.
In any science exist traditional and in a sense enduring metodol. problems. In medicine, e.g., problems of a ratio social and biol concern to them., fiziol, and patol., structural and functional in an etiology and a pathogeny of diseases, interactions social and economic and natural ecological factors in developing of diseases, the general and specific organism in reaction, etc. Most often philosophical problems arise during the periods of bystry development of medical science, abrupt withdrawal pains of former concepts and representations when new experimental and the wedge, material calls into question the settled ways of an explanation of a number of problems. The similar picture arose nowadays in such important section of the doctrine on pathology as an etiology of diseases. Many facts which are saved up, e.g., in cardiology, oncology and psychiatry do not allow to explain unambiguously an etiology of a number of diseases (a hypertension, schizophrenia, cancer tumors). About it the discussion between supporters mono - and polyaetiologies erupted. Creates metodol. a basis for the solution of similar philosophical problems of medicine which are integrally connected with such actually philosophical questions as a ratio material and spiritual, categories of pattern, causality, relationship objective and subjective in knowledge, etc.
Metodol. function D. is inseparably linked with its world outlook role. Only on the basis of a dialectic way of thinking any perhaps consecutive exposure of idealistic speculation at the newest opening of science, the critic of mechanistic and vitalistic tendencies in biology (see. Vitalism ).
In modern conditions fight between bourgeois and Marxist-Leninist outlooks escalates. This process finds reflection and in biology and medicine. There is a problem of exposure of reactionary speculation and the critical analysis of philosophical delusions of some scientists — physicians and biologists — in the bourgeois countries.
Speaking about the attitude towards scientists of the bourgeois countries, V. I. Lenin insisted on need of the differentiated approach to their theories, inadmissibility of a vulgar identification of natural-science and philosophical and ideological aspects of the studied concepts. Ignoring of this Lenin principle conducted to the fact that polemic, e.g., around specific questions of genetics or cybernetics was given for fight of materialism and idealism in these sciences. Strong condemnation is demanded also by attempts to change scientific discussions for monopoly of the certain scientist or school.
The union of philosophy and natural sciences, V. I said. Lenin, is equally useful to any industry of knowledge. Need of such union is caused by requirements of the most developing natural sciences, a cut «progresses so quickly, endures the period of such deep revolutionary withdrawal pains in all areas that to natural sciences not to do without philosophical conclusions at all» (V. I. L of e of N and N, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 45, p. 31). Without synthesis of achievements of science and social practice the philosophy can turn into an abstract logicism, dogmatism, a speculative naturfilosofstvovaniye. In turn the natural sciences without support on philosophy, its rich, effectively heuristically functioning device can turn into something theoretically not issued, vegetating in a factual account and subject to influence of bourgeois ideology.
In the conditions of rapid development of science during an era of a scientific and technological revolution and sharp aggravation an ideal. fight only scientific methodology and outlook is the dialectic materialism; «... the dialectics is for modern natural sciences the most important form of thinking because only it represents an analog and by that a method of an explanation for the developments happening in the nature, for general bonds of the nature, for transitions from one area of a research to another» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 20, p. 367).
Bibliography: Marx K. and Engels F. Compositions, 2nd prod., t. 20, page 339, M., 1961; Lenin V. I. Complete works, 5th prod., t. 18, 26, M., 1961, t. 29, M., 1963, t. 45, page 23, M., 1964; Philosophy and modern biology, under the editorship of I. T. Frolov, M., 1973; Frolov I. T. Progress in science and future of the person, M., 1975; C and-regorodtsev G. I. Dialectic materialism and medicine, M., 1966.
I. T. Frolov, R. S. Karpinskaya, G. I. Tsaregorodtsev.