DIAGNOSTICUMS (grech, diagnostikos capable to distinguish) — the suspensions of the neutralized microorganisms used as antigens for serological tests. Danger of work with live cultures, their ability to variability and existence of broad antigenic bonds do reasonable D.'s use — more standard and homogeneous drugs containing certain antigenic components.
By means of D. in agglutination tests, passive (indirect) hemagglutination (RPGA), etc. reveal specific antibodies in serums of people and animals for the purpose of diagnosis and studying of an immune condition of an organism.
Especially widely use D. in laboratory researches at intestinal infections. However the community of an antigenic structure of colibacilli causes existence of cross-reactions and demands the differentiated identification of antibodies. For this purpose carry out selective suppression of separate antigens: by means of phenol or formalin suppress O-agglyutinabelnost as Felix and Olitsky offered (A. Felix, L. Olitzki, 1928). Influencing alcohol on Win and Sontag's way or warming up on Kauffmanna, receive O-diagnosticums with the inactivated flagellar antigen. Use of mono diagnosticums which principle of creation is developed by F. G. Berngof (1944) is even more perspective. These drugs contain only one antigenic component, and they interact only with certain specific antibodies.
The possibility of preservation of properties of bacterial D. by them is shown lyophilizing (see).
Applied to serodiagnosis of various infections are essentially similar, however separate types of these drugs have certain specifics.
It is conventional that RPGA is more sensitive and specific, than bacterial agglutination. As antigens in RPGA apply formalinizirovanny erythrocytes, sensibilized the antigens received by Buaven and Vestfal's methods.
Perhaps also erythrocyte D.' use for identification of antigen in fabrics, allocations of patients, extracts of various substances, etc. In these cases apply erythrocytes, sensibilized antibodies — «antitelny diagnosticums».
Virus D. apply generally in the reaction of binding complement (RBC), RTGA and a neutralization test. Train them from the virussoderzhashchy cultural liquids processed (inactivated) in various ways.
The short characteristic of the main D. and the sphere of their use are presented in the table.
There are also experimental drugs used in scientific work: the erythrocyte kolidiagnostikuma, diphtheritic erythrocyte D. hemagglutinating antigens of viruses of parotitis, clumsy the Hemagglutinating antigen, etc.
Table. Short characteristic of the main diagnosticums and purpose of their use
Bibliography: Zuev A. S. A bacterial vi-diagnosticum for identification of chronic carriers of typroid bacteria, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 2, page 51, 1959, bibliogr.; Zuev A. S., Novoselova A. I. and Likina I. V. Development of a technique of production production of O-diagnosticums and N-monovalent diagnosticums and their use at a serodiagnosis of salmonellez, in the same place, No. 3, page 42, 1956; Immunology and prevention of intestinal infections, under the editorship of S. I. Didenko, page 180, M., 1962; Karalnik B. V. Erythrocyte diagnosticums, M., 1976; The Guide to microbiological diagnosis of infectious diseases, under the editorship of K. I. Matveev, page 172, M., 1973; Subbotina Yu. L. and d river. Serological diagnosis of salmonelloses and antigenic bonds in reactions with erythrocyte and bacterial O-diagnosticums, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 3, page 19, 1970, bibliogr.
L. B. Bogoyavlenskaya.