From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DIAFANOSKOPIYA (grech, diaphaines transparent + skopeo to consider, investigate) — a method of a research of an eyeglobe, okolonosovy bosoms, pathological accumulations of liquid in cavities by their raying.

Is only an additional diagnostic method.

Fig. 1 — 4. Diafanoskopiya of an eye: fig. 1 — transscleral raying of a healthy eye (the red luminescence of a pupil is expressed); fig. 2 — transpupillyarny (transcorneal) raying of a healthy eye (the uniform luminescence of a front surface of a sclera is expressed); fig. 3 — transpupillyarny raying at a tumor of a choroid (it is specified by an arrow); fig. 4 — transscleral raying at the same tumor, as in the figure 3 (the luminescence of a pupil is absent).

Diafanoskopiya of an eye (transillumination of an eye) it is based that light rays, passing through a sclera, normal light a cavity of an eye, and during the movement of a cone of the device on a sclera the pupil normal gives a bright uniform red luminescence (tsvetn. fig. 1 and 2). Carry out for the purpose of diagnosis of intraocular tumors or intraocular foreign bodys. Apply two main types of D. — transscleral and transpupillyarny. The most widespread transscleral D. is carried out by a pristavleniye of the end of the light guide of a diafanoskop to a sclera to the equator and behind the equator (a bloody diafanoskopiya according to S. S. Golovin).

If on the way of the rays of light going from a diafanoskop there is a tumor, the luminescence of a pupil is not observed or its intensity is reduced. At a transpupillyarny diafanoskopiya the shining tip of a diafanoskop is put to the center of a cornea. In case of an arrangement of a tumor or a foreign body on the course of light rays on a sclera the shadow is found (tsvetn. fig. 3 and 4). Control of degree of a luminescence of a pupil is exercised visually or by means of the photo multiplier. As a result of use of the photo multiplier (an objective diafanoskopiya according to I. N. Shevelyov) D.'s sensitivity increased and rather exact registration of borders of an intraocular tumor became possible.

Diafanoskopiya of okolonosovy bosoms it is based that light from the eye-socket of an electric bulb entered into a mouth or put to an internal corner, passing through not changed bones, soft tissues of a skull and okolonosovy bosoms, gives a bright luminescence.

The indication for D.'s carrying out of okolonosovy bosoms is suspicion on patol, processes in them (an inflammation, tumors).

Fig. 5 — 8. Diafanoskopiya of okolonosovy bosoms (maxillary and frontal): fig. 5 — maxillary (Highmore's) bosoms are normal transparent (the luminescence of area of genyantrums is expressed — it is specified by shooters — and pupils); fig. 6 — an inflammation of the left genyantrum (antritis — is absent a luminescence of a bosom and a pupil); fig. 7 — the right frontal sinus is normal transparent (the luminescence of a bosom is expressed); fig. 8 — an inflammation of the right frontal sinus (a frontal sinusitis — the bosom is not transparent, there is no luminescence).

The research is made in the darkened room by means of diafanoskop of various designs. For raying of a genyantrum the end of the light guide of a diafanoskop is entered into a mouth of the patient that lips it densely clasped a cone. At absence patol, changes in okolonosovy bosoms after inclusion of a bulb both halves of the face shine reddish light and under eye-sockets two light spots of a semi-lunar form appear; pupils shine bright red light (tsvetn. fig. 5). Investigated feels feeling of light in both eyes.

At patol, changes in a genyantrum (pus, a tumor) the relevant side of a face (including and a pupil) does not shine, there is no feeling of light in an eye on the struck party (tsvetn. fig. 6).

For raying frontal sinus the cone of a diafanoskop is put to an internal corner of an eye-socket. At D. the healthy frontal sinus gives a bright luminescence of front its wall. Degree of translucence of okolonosovy bosoms is influenced by the size of bosoms, thickness of their bone walls, puffiness of a mucous membrane, existence separated in bosoms (tsvetn. fig. 7 and 8).

Diafanoskopiya of a scrotum — see. Gidrotsele .


Eye diafanoskop consists of a light source and the light guide.

A light source — the tiny filament lamp mounted in the handle of the device. The lamp joins in the power supply network through step-down transformer, being included in the package of the device. To the handle of the device the diafanoskopichesky cone — the light guide with the condenser consisting of two convexo-plane lenses fastens.

Eye diafanoskop with replaceable cones (1 — the case; 2 — the switch; 3 — replaceable cones) the Karl Tseys enterprises, Yen.

Conical shape of the light guide is caused by need of increase in intensity of light on its output end. The lamp is placed in back focus of the condenser therefore it leaves a parallel bunch of beams. Falling on an entrance end face of the light guide, the bunch undergoes several total internal reflections on its side surface, and the output end face leaves the concentrated narrow beam of light. For convenience of use the external end of the light guide is carried out curved. Sometimes several cones with various form of the curved end (fig.) are included in the package of the device.

In new designs of diafanoskop instead of a rigid diafanoskopichesky cone the flexible light guide representing a long fiber plait is used. The output end of the light guide is put into the rigid cover giving it a bend, convenient for carrying out a research. The entering end of the light guide is connected to the fiber lighter consisting of a powerful light source with the cooling fan and the condenser directing a parallel bunch of beams to the light guide. As the fiber light guide comes out cold light, danger of an overheat of an eye is excluded.

Otorhinolaryngological diafanoskop. The Diafanoskopa applied in otorhinolaryngology are based on the same principle, as eye diafanoskopa. Release also diafanoskopa of simpler design, without light guide in which the tiny filament lamp concluded in a special case contacts directly to the illuminated fabric. The double diafanoskopa strengthened on one handle are sometimes applied. These devices allow to compare brightness of a luminescence of the right and left maxillary and frontal bosoms.

Bibliography: Diseases of an ear, throat and nose, under the editorship of V. F. Undrits, page 263, L., 1960; The Multivolume guide to otorhinolaryngology, under the editorship of A. G. Likhachev, t. 4, page 23, M., 1963.

Of an eye — V. V. and Mi-find fault wolves of l about in A. I. O kinds of a diafanoskopiya and its diagnostic opportunities in ophthalmology, Vestn, oftalm., No. 2, page 46, 1972; Wolves V. V., Gore baths A. I. and D and l and and sh in and l and O. A. Clinical trial of an eye by means of devices, L., 1971; Golovin. S. O a method of retrobulbar raying of an eye at operations, Vestn, oftalm., t. 27, No. I, page 863, 1910; The Multivolume guide to eye diseases, under the editorship of V. N. Arkhangelsky, t. 1, book 2, page 64, M., 1962; Shevelyov I. N., Volodina A. N. and Goldman 3. M. Tool diagnosis of tumors of an organ of sight (diafanoskopiya, orbitotonomet-riya), Alma-Ata, 1971, bibliogr.

M. M. Filippov, I. N. Shevelyov; R. M. Tamarova (medical tekhn.).