DEVASTATION (Latin devastatio devastation, destruction) — a complex of active methods of controlling with invasive and infectious diseases of the person, animals and plants for rational destruction of causative agents of these diseases in separate geographical or economic zones. The term is offered K. I. Scriabin in 1944.
According to Scriabin, devastatsionny actions are subdivided as follows: on coverage of the territory — regional, zone, local D.; at the choice of subject to destruction — helminthic, protozoonotic, arakhnoetomozny, bakteriozny, virus, mycotic D.; at the choice of object of improvement — medical, veterinary, agronomical, or kompleksnozoonozny.
Helminthic D. is fullestly developed; it is characterized by active fight against parasites of the person and animals by means of a difficult complex of actions for prevention, chemoprophylaxis, deworming of the population, a disinvasion of the environment, biol, influences on causative agents of diseases with an ultimate goal to exempt the person and animals from the most pathogenic helminths.
Distinguish D. total and partial. At total D. hold events for complete elimination of separate types of helminths in a certain territory (the area, the region, the republic) for permanent improvement of the population and animals. The example of total D. can be considered complete elimination of the activator dracunculosis (see) — nematodes of hypodermic cellulose of the person — in Uzbekistan. In our country practically devastirovana causative agents of malaria.
Partial D.'s purpose — not elimination, but falloff of incidence of nek-ry helminthoses in certain areas, zones. During 1955 — 1975 partial D. of ankylostomas in the centers of an ankilostomidoz on the mine Lengar (the Kazakh SSR), in Kzylkiya's mines, in mountainous areas of Adjara, in the Gudauta district of the Abkhaz ASSR, in mines of Donbass is made. The coenurosis of the Karakul sheep in the Bukhara region is almost completely liquidated. Partial D. along with full shall be put widely into practice.
D.'s success of helminths (full and partial) in many respects depends on degree of study of helminthoses. Knowledge of all details biol, a cycle of helminth both in an organism of the owner, and in the conditions of the environment is necessary; thorough investigation of epidemiology of certain helminthoses taking into account geographical zones and features. For D. well developed technique of diagnosis and effective therapy of this helminthosis is necessary; the necessary number of the qualified medical and medical assistant's personnel; the most strict supervision of observance of all rules of devastatsionny actions concerning all stages of helminths; wide dignity. - a gleam, work.
In the USSR D. first of all of the following activators is planned: 1) teniidoz (bull and pork tapeworms); 2) echinococcosis of animals and person; 3) coenurosis (gyrinid) of sheep. Concerning these helminthoses the full complex of devastatsionny actions is developed.
Of activators of helminthozoonoses (teniidoz and cysticercoses) carry out according to the plan, to the developed M3 of the USSR together with the Ministry of Agriculture, etc., by forces medical and vt. specialists, workers of livestock production with involvement of public organizations for promotion of fight for cultural life, for hygiene of livestock rooms, industrial, page - x. and trade enterprises.
Without rational improvement of conditions of the environment helminths cannot be devastirovana. Therefore in the large-scale specialized livestock enterprises created on an industrial basis detention regime and feedings of animals, adverse for existence of parasites is set (hydrowashout and removal of manure etc. is made). In such farms cultivation of agelmintozny animals is possible.
See also Deworming .
Bibliography I. V. Devastation's eagles — the newest doctrine of the academician K. I. Scriabin about opportunities and ways of destruction of helminths of the person and animals, Works gelmintol. Laborat. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, t. 3, page 51, M. — L., 1950; With to r I and K. I. Devastation's N in fight against helminthoses and other diseases of the person and animals, Frunze, 1947; it, To specification of a concept of a devastation, Works gelmintol. Laborat. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, t. 3, page 57, M.-L., 1950; about N e, Construction of helmintologic science and practice in the USSR, t. 1, M., 1962.
V. S. Yershov.