DETERMINISM (Latin determinare to define) — philosophical doctrine about general objective universal relationship and causal conditionality of processes and natural phenomena, societies and consciousnesses.
Is the cornerstone of scientific outlook, promoting identification of a complex system of ambiguous action of the determining, arbitrary and necessary factors, opening the pattern which is shown here.
D.'s maintenance can be expressed in the following provisions: a) any phenomenon is prichinno caused; it arises from interaction a nek-swarm of set of factors (material, power, information); b) formation (emergence and development) of any phenomenon happens not randomly, and submits to natural bonds (dynamic or probabilistic and statistical type); c) as knowledge of laws of emergence and development of any phenomenon so far as perhaps scientific prediction and management of processes of the nature and society is possible.
The idea that everything in the world arises and develops naturally, as a result of action of certain reasons arose during an era of antiquity and received the embodiment finished on that time in Aristotle's doctrine. Claiming that both activity of the person comprises the urgent purpose, and objects of the nature include the purpose of «aspiration», infinite on contents (the potential purpose) which is implemented in development of a subject, Aristotle comes to a conclusion that this «the internal purpose» and is the reason of the movement from the lowest steps of the nature to the highest, being transformed at the same time to some absolute — «entelekhiya» as completion of development, the achieved result of general «aspiration».
The teleologic orientation of interpretation of expediency of processes barred the way for her explanation by means of the material reasons, as was shown in medieval scholasticism which claimed that expediency of the nature can allegedly be comprehended, having only recognized existence of a supernatural reasonable being, i.e. god who created this world according to the purposes.
Release from scholasticism and development of natural sciences in Renaissance and during Modern times was noted by acute criticism of «teleologic thinking». However in a counterbalance and to replace it in natural sciences the principles of mechanical moved forward. The special role in it was played by works F. Bacon, P. Laplace, I. Newton, K. Linney, J. Kepler, R. Descartes, G. Galilei, Spinoza (V. Spinoza) and, at last, fr. materialists of 18 century — P. Holbach, Helvetius (S. Helvetius), D. Diderot, Zh. Lametri.
It was time of rapid development of physics, mechanics, analytical geometry, mathematics which provisions extended to the world in general presented in the form of the closed mechanical system (the world — the car; the person, a plant, an animal — cars), cover behavior, knowing initial conditions, it is unambiguously possible to define in any subsequent timepoint. The thought of predefiniteness of all which is contained here real inevitably pulled together mechanical D. with fatalistic and religious views and did not bring scientists «out of limits of a theological view of the nature» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, t. 20, page 534).
Struck mortal blow of teleology in natural sciences, according to Marx, Ch. Darvin's doctrine which allowed to reveal at the same time its «rational sense» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, t. 30, page 475). And therefore at the end of 19 — the beginning of 20 EL is considered as the main metodol. principle of all natural sciences.
Development of bases of her dialektiko-materialistic understanding in works of classics of Marxism-Leninism became qualitatively new stage in development of the concept of D. According to the doctrine about dialektiko-materialistic D., human knowledge of the movement goes from ascertaining of an overall picture of interrelation and interaction of things to allocation of the separate parties, to decomposition of interaction on the making elements, on cause and effect. But cause and effect «only the moments of the world interdependence, communication (universal), mutually couplings of events, only links in a chain of development of matter» (V. I. Lenin, PSS, t. 29, page 143). Therefore, D. includes causality, but does not come down to it. Causality — a form of manifestation of. Dialektiko-materialistichesky D. can be defined as such concept of communication, includes edges not only the unambiguous causal relations of mechanical type, but much more widely and more deeply characterizes these bonds from their necessary or accidental, internal or external, direct or mediated character. In the course of knowledge there is a picture of a difficult texture of bonds and interactions, in a cut everything moves, changes, arises and disappears. The principle of the world universal interaction of things is also the cornerstone of dialektiko-materialistic.
The great heuristic value of materialistic understanding of the principle of causality in philosophy and medicine (see. Causality ) in that also consists that it through disclosure of communication of the reasons, conditions and the investigations prepared formation of more universal principle of medicine and natural sciences — the principle D.
Works of doctors to J. Borelli, G. Burkhava, Zh. Lametri, A. Vezaliya and U. Garvey laid the foundation historically of the first form D. in medicine — exogenous and mechanical D.: the organism is «the difficult car» (Zh. Lametri), «workshop» (A. Vezaly). D. agrees exogenous mechanically, the organism is «passive substance», the organization a cut entirely, rigidly and is unambiguously determined by the external «active» factors causing a disease of an organism in certain conditions. In medicine on this basis developed yatromekhanichesky (see. Yatromekhanika ), yatrofiziche-sky, yatrokhimichesky (see. Yatrokhimiya ) the concepts which found the logical conclusion in a monokauzalizm.
At the end of 19 century for the first time with all definiteness as the reasons of diseases material factors to which number first of all pathogenic microorganisms were carried were put forward. Revaluating at the same time a role of implementation of microbes in a human body, pathologists and microbiologists believed that one this fact for developing of a disease suffices. This direction in etiologies (see) also received the name of a monokauzalizm (i.e. one-causality, grech, monos — one and lat. causa — the reason). The monokauzalizm underwent serious criticism at the beginning of 20 century.
Mechanical D. in medicine was based on a mechanical picture of the world; it was the attempt to extend classical Laplace D. to area of wildlife.
The essential role in the statement of the principles D. in physiology and medicine was played by K. Bernard's book published in 1865 «Introduction to studying of pilot medicine» (the Russian lane, SPb., 1866). In the book «Vital Phenomena, the General to Animals and Plants» (Russian lane, SPb., 1878). K. Bernard as follows defines D.: «We recognize generality of the principle of a physiological determinism in a live organism and we will express our thought the following provisions: 1) there are certain material conditions which manage emergence of the phenomena of life; 2) there are preset laws which manage order and a form of these phenomena... The determinism is no other than recognition of the law, everywhere, always».
However resisted to the mechanical concept of D. in medicine teologo-vitalistic [Shtal (G. E. Stahl), A. Galler, S. Hahnemann, I. Müller], raised a question of expediency in the device of an organism, about active influence of the organism on the nature of its responses, including and on a disease (autogenic D.). Extreme options of autogenic D. were various options of «physiological» idealism, teleology (finalizm) and vitalism (see). So, in 19 century in medicine the alternative concept accurately appeared: teleologizm or mekhanitsizm?
Essence diseases (see) it is not reduced to the nature of either external, nor internal factors, being fixed only in their specific contradictory interaction. Therefore if there are externally opposite theories (mechanical D. with a primacy external and autogenic D. with a primacy of internal) having the actual basis, then it means that it is necessary to create the new theory, would synthesize edges old and at the same time dialectically denied them, reflecting these theories as the moments of knowledge. Such theory in modern biology and medicine is organic D.'s concept, edges is based on all-philosophical doctrine about dialektiko-materialistic. Dialektiko-materialistichesky consideration of interaction of objects in close connection with conditions in which it is carried out radically breaks system of unambiguous causality since the result can be defined not only the factors caused by an object, but also external, arbitrary factors now.
The Dialektiko-materialistichesky concept of D. allows to characterize versatily and relationships of cause and effect, to understand, in particular, the unambiguous relations of mechanical type only as one of types of causality, possible in case of artificial (experimental or mental) isolation of objects from those difficult conditions in which they interact.
In interaction of systems of big complexity (to the Crimea objects belong first of all biol) dialektiko-materialistic D. considers one more essential circumstance — an oposredovannost of this interaction through the internal relations of objects which specifically and in different degree actively transform action of this or that external factor
In all these interactions, though there is a disturbance of unambiguity, at Krom the subsequent condition of system cannot already be brought completely out of previous, the material relationship of cause and effect which is not demanding «additions» teleol remains. character. This communication has statistical property, and the scientific knowledge evolving from its analysis — the probabilistic nature. At a research of the last we face total manifestation of need for a type of «averaging» of pattern of various tendencies which existence is determined by a complex of conditions and complexity of internal specifics of objects. These tendencies can be accidental in relation to that party, to-ruyu we isolate in the course of the research as an isolated case, but some of them are necessary when we deal with their set.
Comprehensively characterizing relationships of cause and effect, considering their direct and mediated action, unilinear and cyclic character, dialektikomaterialistichesky D. describes different types of bonds, allowing to define the general metodol. approaches to the analysis of the systems having various degree of structural and functional organization, specific forms of internal and external interactions. This concept of D. covers all existing forms of the analysis of reasonablly organized systems and purposeful processes where competent «the teleologic thinking» in its different types was necessary, namely to it systems and processes belong biol.
Specific bonds and interactions in wildlife which were represented by teleology by direct analogy to human activity in the spirit of a finalizm, conditionality of material processes of live systems «ultimate goal» were materialistically explained by cybernetics. She used up to the end the «rational sense» which is contained in this analogy, understanding it only as the beginning, starting point of knowledge, but not its end, as in a finalizm. The results of this knowledge expressed in concepts of information and a feed-back are in full consent with dialektiko-materialistic, organic D.'s concept and enrich, develop it.
In the functioning and development which are self-regulating, the self-controlled systems the new bonding which is characterized, in particular, by recurrence is shown. From the point of view of information the cyclic communication which is carried out in the form of interaction of multidirectional processes can be defined as unity of a straight line and feed-back. Therefore in it processes of the peculiar predetermination fixed in the program in the form of code model of the subsequent actions and creating statistically implemented orientation of these actions are observed.
The interactions which are observed between various conditions of self-regulating system and expressed in the form of causality can be characterized by concepts of cyclic communication of cause and effect, one of types a cut and so-called target causality, existence acts the cut thereby is not denied, but limits of its applicability are specified. Causality and expediency in live are not opposed within dialektiko-materialistic, organic D., and supplement each other: the research of purposeful behavior of systems, a research of a final stage of process as the purposes (target approach) shall be causally explained.
Dialektiko - materialistic interpretation of D. allows to overcome any attempts of revival of teleology in modern conditions [E. Bunning, 1948; Burgher (M. Burger), 1958; I. Haas, 1956; X. Frederix, 1955; W. Riese, 1953; G. Selye, 1956] and to develop such theoretical explanation, a cut would consider as the direct and unambiguous causal relationships of dynamic type and which are statistically interpreted in which need, pattern are shown only totally, in the form of «averaging» of various, objectively accidental tendencies. This dialektiko-materialistic concept of D., comprehensively characterizing relationships of cause and effect, defines the general metodol. approach to the analysis of the systems having various degree of structurally functional organization, a specific form of internal and external interaction to which number also live systems belong. Therefore organic D.'s concept orients the researcher to the analysis of specificity of their interaction, the accounting of integrity and complexity of hierarchy of structural levels, dialectic bonds external and internal.
See also Dialectics .
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