DETERGENTS — the substances applied in life or on production to removal of various pollution. Two basic groups of products belong to detergents: [[ | washed SOAPS ]] (see) and synthetic detergents (SD) of different function. Due to the broad production of SMS which began in the late fifties, production of soap in the world is gradually reduced. Both groups differ among themselves with the fact that soaps are produced on the basis of animal or seed fats, and SMS are complexes of chemical substances, the main component to-rykh are the surfactants (S) produced on the basis of various synthetic products — the highest fat to - t, the higher fatty alcohols and other chemical connections received from oil products and other natural raw materials. The main lack of SMS — the expressed irritant action on integuments shown in concentration of 1 — 2% and above.
Hundreds of names SMS having, however, rather close structures are known. Can be a part of SMS, except obligatory components — various, hl. obr. anionic surfactant, also phosphates, silicates, borates, soda ash, carboxymethylcellulose, perfumery fragrances, bleaches and nek-ry other connections improving them washing and commodity properties. SMS are issued in the form of powders more often, is more rare — liquids and pastes.
Due to quantity production and use of SMS pollution of objects of the environment by them, especially reservoirs, got the considerable sizes. The largest content of SMS is noted in drain waters of the textile, fur, tanning enterprises, laundries, they constantly contain in household drains. In drinking water supply systems SMS ingredients, including surfactant, get because usual water treatment facilities detain them in insignificant degree. Many surfactant unlike soaps break up on constructions biol, cleanings and in water of reservoirs slowly and short. These substances can contaminate free air around the enterprises making them. The person contacts to detergents in the course of their production, and also at their use (e.g., during the washing of linen), at the use of the drinking water contaminated by these substances.
SMS and their components have rather low toxicity. Toxicity of soaps lower, than SMS. Average lethal doses (LD50) of the main domestic SMS of household purpose (e.g., «Aster», «Lotus», «Progress», etc.) lie within 2,3 — 10 g/kg of weight of white rats. Thereof fatal poisonings of people, including children, at accidental peroral receipt of these products were not observed. In these cases at people the phenomena of diarrhea were noted. Detergents do not possess the expressed cumulative action therefore they are malotoksichna of l at long receipt in an organism. Morfol, changes in bodies at acute poisonings with high doses of SMS are characterized by dominance of the phenomena of local irritant action, a venous plethora of internals. The most characteristic and expressed SMS property is their ability to change permeability biol, membranes of intestines of hematothermal organisms, including the person and thereof — to change toxicity of the substances accompanying them as towards strengthening, and decrease depending on a phase of action. This SMS property is explained by presence at them surfactant, to-rye in rather high doses can strengthen also action of carcinogenic substances. Owing to irritant action of SMS it is not recommended to apply them to washing of a body, excepting limited use of nek-ry SMS in small concentration for washing of hands. Allergenic action of SMS is known. Maximum allowable concentrations of the SMS separate components are developed for water of reservoirs. Such concentration are recommended for anionic substances: alkylsulfates, alkylsulfonates, sulphanoles at the level of 0,5 mg/l.
Detergents in disinfection
M.'s Use by the village for disinfection (see) it is based on their ability to delete from fabrics, ware, furniture, surfaces covered with an oil paint, etc. various pollution, and together with them microorganisms of N of insects. M of page have also to a certain extent bactericidal, insecticidal properties. Temperature of solution, a processing time and intensity of influence exerts impact on disinfecting and disinfecting efficiency of detergents. So, washing of hands warm water with usual toilet soap deletes from them 70 — 90% of microorganisms.
Methods of use of M. of page for disinfection are various and depend on their character and the disinfected object. It is important to observe strictly certain concentration of M. of page and necessary time of their contact with the disinfected object. E.g., for disinfecting by bactericidal soaps of a hand soap during 15 — 20 sec., then carefully wipe with the soapsuds 1 min. formed hands then wash away soap water.
Apply various soaps to disinfection, from to-rykh are most effective prepared on vegetable oils — coconut and linen, in a smaller measure on castor and cotton. For increase in bactericidal properties of soaps, to-rye in itself poorly bakteritsidna, enter antibacterial agents into them, napr, persistex (Hygiene soap). Apply also mixes of green soap with phenol (respectively 2% and 3%), green soap with cresol (lysol), 2% to-rogo use solution for disinfection of linen, bathtubs, toys and so forth. From surfactants apply the cation-active substances belonging to the class of the quarternary ammonium bases to disinfection to-rye possess high bacteriostatic and considerable bactericidal action. From domestic drugs treat them: katamin (alkylbenzyldimethyl ammonium chloride), katapin (n-alkylbenzylpyridinia chloride), kationat-10 (alkiltrimetilammony chloride). For disinfecting of hands of surgeons the industry produces Diocidum, degmin, Degmicidum, pyrogel. Anionic surfactants - sulphanoles, etc. — render bactericidal effect in much higher concentration, than cation-active substances, and are applied in concentration of 0,5 — 1% in mix with other disinfectants (hydrogen peroxide of 3% p other).
See also Detergents
Bibliography: Vashkov In, And. Means and; the methods of sterilization applied in medicine, M., 1973; about N e, Antimicrobic cure and methods of disinfection for infectious diseases, M., 1977; M about - and e in E.A. Pollution of reservoirs surfactants, M., 1976; Nemtsov V. D. State and perspectives of development of production of goods of household chemicals, Prom-st of goods life. chemistry, L? 5, page 4, 1974; H about in and to about in A. Ya. Chemical goods of household purpose, M., 1968; The Reference book on soap-producing production, under ptv. P. M. Tovbina, M., 1974; Works of the 7th Maine d \the national congress on poverkhnosp! *, - to active agents, t. 1 — 4, M., 1977; H. l of m of e r with L. Chemical means in «"to a yag and the industry, the lane with English, M., 1969.
E. A. Mozhaev.