From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DESINFECTANTS — the physical agents and chemicals used for destruction of causative agents of infectious diseases in the Wednesday surrounding the person.

At D.'s choice by the village, determination of their quantity and concentration, duration of impact on objects it is necessary to consider properties of the activator, property and the number of allocations, with to-rymi activators are brought out of a human body or an animal; properties of the objects which are subject to disinfecting.

Physical agents of disinfection

Physical agents of disinfection: warming up, boiling, steaming, calcinating, burning, burning, use of a dry and humid hot air, radiant energy (beams of the sun, infrared beams, ultraviolet rays, X-ray, etc.), ultrasound, currents of ultrahigh frequency, mechanical ways.

At influence of high temperatures all microorganisms, except for sporous forms, perish in rather short terms as a result of coagulation of cellular proteins and an inactivation of enzymes; these changes occur quicker in the presence of free moisture. In disinfection practice various ways of influence of high temperatures find broad application.

Warming up is used at pasteurizations (see) and tindallizations (see).

Boiling is widely applied to disinfecting of various objects which are not spoiling at the same time (ware, linen, toys, objects of a nosotrophy). Duration of boiling depends on stability of the activator, quantity and structure of allocations in which there are activators. For vegetative forms of bacteria (dysentery, diphtheria, tuberculosis, etc.) it makes 15 — 60 min., viruses (flu, adenoviruses, a viral hepatitis, enteroviruses, natural smallpox) — 5 — 30 min., sporous forms of bacteria (malignant anthrax) — 1,5 — 2 hours.

Water vapor is used for disinfection and sterilization in special devices (see. Autoclave , Disinfection chambers ).

Calcinating and burning find application in bacteriology and veterinary disinfection. Calcinating of tools, loops, ware make in mikrobiol. laboratories. In vivariums, animal-breeding, livestock, poultry-farming, beekeeping farms burn with a blowtorch metal cells, feeding troughs, objects of leaving, harvest stock.

Burning of m destroy corpses of animals, the remains of food, paper waste paper, rags, straw from mattresses, etc. Burning is made in cases epidemiol, and economic feasibility.

The dry hot air (with relative humidity lower than 20%) possesses weak bactericidal action. This results from the fact that at its influence protein quickly loses free water, and in a dry form it is very steady against action of heat. Besides, air has low heat capacity and bad heat conductivity. Therefore for obtaining the effect disinfecting' objects shall be affected by a dry hot air of t ° apprx. 150 ° during 1,5 — 2 hours that leads to damage of things. Therefore it is used only in mikrobiol, laboratories (see. Pasteur furnace ) and in disinsections (see).

The humid hot air (with relative humidity of 60 — 100%) combining high heat capacity with good heat conductivity is widely used in some types of disinfection chambers. In mikrobiol, laboratories a number of mediums will sterilize a humid hot air in Koch's device. For disinfecting of outerwear (in the absence of disinfection chambers) and linen (after washing without boiling) the proglazhivaniye by the hot iron (t ° 100 °) through wet fabric can be used.

Low temperatures do not find application in disinfection practice since the majority of microorganisms keeps viability even at temperatures, near absolute to zero.

Sunshine — the powerful factor promoting decrease in bacterial environmental pollution (water, the soil and especially air). This action is shown also in insoliruyemy rooms.

Artificial sources of infrared rays (electric filament lamps, infrared furnaces with a high vacuum, etc.) apply to sterilization of surgical instruments.

Ultraviolet rays with the wavelength from 254 to 300 nanometers and from 230 to 200 nanometers have bactericidal activity (see. Ultraviolet radiation ). Their efficiency depends on a source of radiation (wavelength, intensity, etc.), time of influence, biol, features of microorganisms and from features of the environment, in a cut beams work (humidity, dust content, a turbidity, pH). Small doses of ultraviolet rays accelerate growth of yeast, mold mushrooms, dermatophytes and some bacteria. Ultraviolet rays destroy toxin, and also antibodies in serum.

Quartz-mercury and mercury and uviol lamps are a source of ultraviolet rays.

Mercury-quartz lamps of high pressure radiate as the short-wave ultraviolet rays (200 nanometers and well) causing formation of ozone in air and long-wave (253,7 nanometers). Their shortcoming — formation of toxic nitric oxides under the influence of the ozone produced by ultraviolet rays.

In mercury and uviol lamps of low pressure the dosage of gases and vapors of mercury is picked up so that 80 — 90% of a flow of radiation have the most bactericidal wavelength (253,7 nanometers). A cathedral glass of a lamp (a special grade of optical glass with the increased transparency in an ultra-violet spectral range), passing a bactericidal part of a range, detains an invisible heat and partially beams less than 200 nanometers. 90% of pathogenic bacteriums perish at influence of energy of ultraviolet rays in a dose 1,5 — 5 mkvt / sec. on 1 cm 2 on 30-minute exposure and more.

From vegetative forms most rezistentna to ultraviolet rays of a mycobacterium of tuberculosis. For death the dispute is required radiation by 40 times big, than for vegetative forms. Ultraviolet rays use for disinfecting of air, water and other objects.

For disinfecting of air in the enclosed space on 1 m 3 not less than 1 W of power of lamps are necessary. Influenza viruses and cocci at the same time begin to die off in several seconds and 15 — 20 min. later are not found. Total quantity of microbes indoors decreases approximately by 30% during the burning of a lamp during 12 hours and for 60 — 80% during the burning of a lamp within 24 — 37 hour. Direct ultraviolet rays are much more effective reflected, but they are harmful to the person (especially for eyes) therefore they are used only at absence in people. In the presence of people apply the reflected ultraviolet rays. At the same time intensity of a flow of ultraviolet rays decreases by 50 — 60 times. Widely use ultraviolet rays in practice of preventive disinfection in operating rooms and dressing rooms, by production of bacteritic drugs, in some workshops of the food industry.

Ionizing radiation — X-ray (see. X-ray emission ), gamma-rays (see. Gamma radiation ), etc. — depending on a dose causes irreversible morfol, and functional changes in a microbic cell. Ionizing radiation uses for sterilization of various materials, conservation of foodstuff (see. Conservation ), etc.

Ultrasound, as a result of action to-rogo is created a big difference in pressure in this connection there is a rupture of a cellular cover, can be applied to disinfecting of water, milk and other liquids. This method as D. of page was not widely adopted in practice.

Currents of ultrahigh frequency (frequency of a pulsation from 30 million to 30 billion Hz) have bactericidal and sporotsidny properties. The issue of practical application of currents of UVCh in disinfection practice is not resolved yet.

Mechanical ways of disinfection

Mechanical ways of disinfection — disinfecting of various objects: washing, cleaning, a vytryakhivaniye, beating, cleaning with brushes, vacuum cleaners, installation for conditioning and ventilation of air provide only removal of activators therefore they need to be combined with other ways by means of which destruction of activators is reached.

Washing can be applied as an independent way of disinfecting of surfaces and objects water with addition of soda to it (1%) or other detergent by means of the hydropanel or other devices, and also brushes or rags. Washing of rubber toys in running water a brush with soap — an easy and reliable way of their disinfection. The most effective and simple (and consequently, generally available) way of an exception of a role of hands in so-called relay transfer of causative agents of intestinal infectious diseases is their correct washing (double soaping and washing with a brush in running water).

Disinfecting of water (see) — destruction in water of bacteria and viruses is reached by a complex of various methods, including: filtering, chlorination, etc. that is various stages of water treatment (see. Water treatment , Chlorination of drinking water ).

Chemical desinfectants

of page belong To chemical D. representatives of various groups of chemical connections: haloids, phenols and their derivatives, acids, alkalis, aldehydes, peroxidates, salts of heavy metals, alcohols and other connections. Of page shall influence directly on activators in the concentration demanded for each type of the activator, on a certain exposure and necessary temperature (at t ° lower than 16 ° death of the majority of pathogenic activators does not happen).

Pages impose the following requirements to chemical D.: good water solubility, efficiency in small concentration and in short terms, a broad spectrum of activity on activators, lack of negative influence on the processed objects (reduction in worthlessness, decolouration, etc.), small toxicity for the person and animals, lack of unpleasant persistent smell, storage stability, low cost and convenience of transportation. Pages apply chemical D. in the form of solutions (emulsions), in gaseous state (at high relative humidity of air) and in a firm look.

On the mechanism of action it is possible to allocate the following groups D. of page: the swelling and dissolution of protein, oxidizers curtailing protein, causing, etc.

The group of oxidizers includes chlorine - bromine - and iodinated connections, and also some peroxidates (see) — potassium permanganate (see. Potassium permanganate ), ozone (see), hydrogen peroxide (see). Corrosion behavior belongs to shortcomings of connections of this group, and also the fact that they are capable to bring the processed objects to a state, unsuitable for further use (decolouration of fabrics and weakening up to final fracture) in this connection use them for disinfecting demands care. At last, many of oxidizers are nonstorable also in solutions.

Most widely in disinfection practice apply chlorine-containing connections: lime chloride (see), hypochlorites, neopantocidum, Pantocidum (see), chloroamine (see), derivatives of hydantoin, trikhlor-and dichlorisocyanuric to - you, etc.

Bactericidal properties of chlorine-containing connections are connected with impact on a microbic cell of oxygen and chlorine and depend on contents in them aktirny chlorine (i.e. the component participating in reactions in water solutions). Bacterial action of these connections can be increased by addition to their solutions of activators — salts of ammonium (ammonium muriate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate), in the ratio 1: 1 or 1: 2 or ammonia in the ratio 1:8, 1:10, 1:16. Such solutions call activated. Activators provide more vigorous course of chemical processes that allows to reduce D.'s concentration of page and to reduce exposure.

Hypochlorites — salts hypochloric to - you — are eurysynusic, but differ, as a rule, in small firmness, aggression therefore it is necessary to store them in densely closed container, in the dry, dark, cool room.

Calcium hypochlorite — white crystal powder with a smell of chlorine. The industry is issued in the form of solutions I and II of a grade with the maintenance of 10 and 8% of active chlorine respectively. Solutions of calcium hypochlorite use for disinfecting of allocations, ware, a dignity. - tekhn. the equipment (bathtubs, toilet bowls, sinks, chamber-pots), the remains of food etc. in concentration of 0,25 — 1% on active chlorine.

Dvutretyosnovny salt of calcium hypochlorite (DTSGK) — white homogeneous crystal powder with a small amount of impurity, is solid salt of hypo chlorite of calcium.

Its quality is defined by the content of active chlorine: The I grade — to 52%, II — to 47%. In DTSGK solution a small amount of quickly upheld insoluble residue consisting of calcium carbonate and chalk is formed. Antimicrobic activity of DTSGK is caused by effect of the substances which are formed at decomposition hypochloric to - you. DTSGK is applied in disinfection practice in the same cases, as lime chloride: in the form of the water not clarified solutions of concentration of 3 — 5 — 10% for disinfecting of allocations; in the form of the water solutions of concentration of 0,125 — 0,2% and 0,1 — 5% clarified activated and not activated for disinfecting of ware, surfaces, and also liquid allocations, in a dry form for disinfecting (at intestinal and drop infectious diseases of 100 — 200 g on 1 kg of allocations, at a malignant anthrax — 500 g, and at tuberculosis and viral diseases of 100 g on 1 l of a phlegm).

Hypochlorite of lithium — white powder with a smell of chlorine, contains 42% of active chlorine, is well dissolved in water. For disinfecting 0,1 — 0,5% solutions depending on stability of activators are recommended.

Sodium hypochlorite is produced the industry of three brands differing on the content of active chlorine and residual alkalinity. Brands A and B — the transparent chartreuse liquids containing 17% of active chlorine. Brand B — liquid from yellow till brown color with the maintenance of 12 and 9,5% of active chlorine (I and II grades respectively). Use in concentration 0,25 — 1% on active chlorine in the same cases, as solutions of calcium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is formed after mixing of the clarified solution of 100 g of lime chloride in 3 l of water with solution of 200 g of soda in 1,5 l of water and carries the name of liquid of Labarrak.

Neopantocidum — mix of chlorite calcium and sodium chloride — easily soluble crystal powder. Dissolved in water at addition of the catalyst decays with release of dioxide of chlorine, edge and is an effective agent of neopantocidum. Solutions are prepared from two childbirth of tablets: neopantocidum and catalyst (mix of pyrosulphate and ferrous sulfate). Apply to disinfecting of rubber gloves (0,4% solution not less than for 5 min.).

From chloractive bactericides chloroamine B and HB chloroamine, water soluble to 20% are widely used. Solutions are transparent, nonspottable, racks at storage. Solutions of chloroamine apply to disinfecting of various objects (ware, linen, toys, objects of patient care, the room, tools, hands) at the current, final and preventive disinfection in 0,2 — 1% of concentration at intestinal, droplet infections of a bacterial etiology, in 0,5 — 3% of concentration at viral diseases, in 5% of concentration at tuberculosis.

Dikhlorgidantoin — white crystal powder with a strong smell of chlorine, contains 79 — 84% of active chlorine. At storage quickly loses active chlorine. It is dissolved in water at the room temperature to 0,5%, at t°40 — 50 ° — to 2%. Drug has bactericidal, virulitsidny (0,05 — 0,1% concentration) and sporotsidny (2% concentration) activity.

Dikhlordimetilgidantoin — white crystal powder with a smell of chlorine, contains up to 70% of active chlorine. A lack of drug is low, slow solubility in water of room temperature (to 0,05%), edges increases to 0,3% during the heating of water to t ° 70 — 80 °. Solutions have acid reaction. 0,01 — 0,05% solutions have bactericidal and virulitsidny activity.

Sulfokhlorantin — the composition containing 20% of dichlordimethylhydantoin, white powder with a smell of chlorine is dissolved in water to 2,9%, has washing and disinfecting ability. In 0,02% of concentration (0,003% of active chlorine) has bactericidal and virulitsidny activity. For disinfecting of various objects at the current, final and preventive disinfection in the centers of intestinal and drop diseases of a bacterial and virus etiology 0,1 — 0,2% solutions of a sulfokhlorantin, and for disinfecting in the centers of tuberculosis of 0,5 — 1% solutions are recommended.

Monokhlordimetilgidantoin — white crystal powder, contains 40% of active chlorine, is dissolved in water at t ° 18 — 20 ° to 1%, has acid reaction, 0,05 — 0,1% solutions have bactericidal and virulitsidny activity.

Trikhlorizotsianurovy acid — slightly yellowish small crystal powder, contains apprx. 90% of active chlorine. In water at t ° 18 — 20 ° about 0,05%, in hot water are dissolved (t ° 50 — 60 °) solubility increases by 10 times. Solutions quickly lose active chlorine therefore can be used only during 2 — 3 hours of 0,05 — 0,1% solutions have bactericidal, virulitsidny and sporotsidny activity and can be used for disinfecting at intestinal and respiratory infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, and at dermatomycoses.

Dikhlorizotsianurovy acid — powder of white color, contains 65 — 70% of active chlorine, is dissolved in water at t ° 20 ° to 0,5%. 0,005% solutions cause death of vegetative forms of microorganisms, 0,05% solutions inactivate viruses, and 0,2% — provide death of sporous forms of microorganisms.

Potassium salt of dichlortricarbonimide — white crystal powder, contains 56 — 58% of active chlorine, is dissolved in water at t ° 20 ° to 7%. Feature of drug is preservation biol, activities regardless of pH of the environment. 0,005 — 0,01% solutions possess bactericidal, 0,05% — virulitsidny, and 0,5% — sporotsidny activity. 0,1 — 0,3% solutions of drug are recommended for disinfecting of various objects at intestinal and respiratory diseases of a bacterial and virus etiology. However during the spraying solutions cause strong irritation of a mucous membrane in this connection compositions on the basis of this drug are created: dichlorine-1, hlordezin, PChD, etc. which are deprived of this shortcoming. Besides, the specified compositions have the washing and cleaning properties.

Sodium salt of dichlortricarbonimide — white crystal powder, contains apprx. 60% of active chlorine, is well dissolved in water (to 24% at t ° 20 °), solutions have subacidic reaction. Activity of solutions remains regardless of change of pH of the environment. 0,01% solutions of drug have bactericidal, virulitsidny, fungicidal activity, and 0,3 — 1% — sporotsidny. Solutions during the spraying cause irritation of mucous membranes. On the basis of sodium salt the tablets «akvasept» which

Are recommended for disinfecting of small water volumes are made.

Hlorsuktsinimid — white crystal powder, contains up to 52% of active chlorine. Activity of drug is depending on pH and is more expressed in acid medium. It is dissolved in water to 1% (at t ° 20 °). Has bactericidal, virulitsidny and sporotsidny properties in concentration of 0,001 — 0,1 — 0,5% respectively.

Metilsulfodikhloramin — the white crystal powder containing up to 84% of active chlorine is dissolved in water to 0,25% (at t ° 20 °), with increase in t ° to 50 ° solubility increases to 0,4%; it is well dissolved in organic solvents. Solutions of drug are transparent, colourless, with a slight smell of chlorine. In concentration of 0,1% — a strong bactericide.

Hlorbetanaftol — white crystal powder, we will badly dissolve in water, it is dissolved in organic solvents, well mixes up with liquid green soap. Is issued in the form of 33% of a concentrate on green green soap — the viscous dark brown weight which is easily mixing up with water. Has no Sporotsidny properties. For disinfecting at intestinal bacterial infectious diseases, tuberculosis (except a phlegm) and dermatomycoses 0,5 — 2% water and soap emulsions are recommended. Hlorbetanaftol srednetoksichen, possesses local irritative and allergenic action.

Benzylphenol — benzilirovanny phenol, the mix of isomers, heavy body with inclusion of crystal formations of white color which is gradually turning pink on light with a light specific smell. In water it is dissolved only in the presence of surfactants (sulphanole). The industry releases in the form of 50% of a concentrate. For disinfecting of objects of the environment in the centers of intestinal and respiratory diseases recommend 0,25 — 0,5% solutions, in the centers of tuberculosis — 0,5 — 2%, for disinfection at dermatomycoses — 1 — 2%. Solutions do not decolour yarkookrashenny fabrics, do not rust metals, are resistant at storage. Solutions of benzylphenol of a srednetoksichna. Local irritative action of 0,5 — 1% of solutions of drug is not expressed, overestimate of concentration to 3 — 5% causes irritation of respiratory tracts and a xeroderma.

Benzilkhlorfenol — the colorless oily liquid which is quickly darkening on air with a slight smell. In water it is insoluble, it is well dissolved in alcohol and ether, mixes up with liquid green (green) soap. 40% a concentrate on green soap are well dissolved in water, forming a spontaneous vodnomylny emulsion. Bactericidal activity of drug is similar to benzylphenol; benzylphenol is recommended in the same concentration, as.

Bromine of N of oozes (5,5 dimethyl-1, 3-dibromgidantoin) — homogeneous light yellow powder. Has the expressed bactericidal activity. It is recommended for disinfecting of water of swimming pools at the content of residual bromine of 0,35 — 0,5 mg/l. At this concentration does not cause irritation of a mucous membrane of eyes and integuments.

Iodine monochloride — liquid of straw-colored color with ud. weight. 1,09, mixes up with water in any ratios; water solutions have acid reaction with a smell of chlorine and iodine, are steady at storage. 0,005 — 0,01% solutions of drug provide death of vegetative forms of bacteria, and 0,5%-— sporous forms. Solutions of drug are recommended for the disinfecting of ware and objects which are not spoiling during the processing. Trichloride iodine, tetrakhloryodid sodium are also well dissolved in water, have bactericidal and sporotsidny activity.

Iodophors — a complex of iodine with surface-active connections or water soluble high polymers which increase solubility of iodine stabilize it in water systems. In them also detergency are combined antimicrobic. Solutions of iodophors in concentration of 0,005 — 0,001%) (on active iodine) cause death of vegetative forms of bacteria; 0,2 — 0,5% solutions inactivate viruses, and 0,75 — 1% — death a dispute. Iodophors (Iodonatum, yodopiron, etc.) use for disinfecting of gloves, medical tools, skin of a surgery field, etc.

Potassium permanganate (see. Potassium permanganate ) — in disinfection practice does not find application owing to a markost and sharply expressed destroying action on fabrics and objects.

Ozone is used for disinfecting of drinking water (see. Ozone , Ozonization of water ).

Hydrogen peroxide for disinfection is used in the form of 1 — 6% of solutions from 0,5% of detergents (sulphanole, «News», «Progress», «Aster», «Lotus», etc.) for disinfecting at intestinal and droplet infections and in the form of 6% of solutions for «cold» sterilization.

Hydroperitum — the tablets containing complex compound of hydrogen peroxide (apprx. 35%) with urea, are easily dissolved in water. It is applied as substitute of hydrogen peroxide. One tablet corresponds to 15 ml of 3% of solution of hydrogen peroxide. For receiving 1% of solution of hydrogen peroxide dissolve 2 tablets in 100 ml of water.

The group of the desinfectants curtailing protein includes a large number of various chemical connections: phenol, cresols and their derivatives, alcohols, salts of heavy metals. In the presence of proteins (and they always contain in allocations, with to-rymi activators are brought out of an organism) the disinfecting effect of drugs of this group is not shown that is connected with formation of the albuminates interfering immediate effect of D. of page on activators. These substances have no effect on disputes, the majority of viruses and on the causative agent of tuberculosis.

Phenol (monohydric phenols, carbolic to - that, cresols) — is applied in the form of soap and carbolic 3% of solutions (3 parts carbolic to - you, 2 parts of green soap and 95 parts of water) or 5% of solutions at intestinal and respiratory diseases. Disinfecting of linen comes only at its obligatory prostiryvaniye in disinfecting solution, and the washing surfaces shall be washed out by solution by means of brushes or rags. All this, and also the persistent irritating smell do not allow to use widely phenol in practice of housing disinfection (see. Phenols ).

Pentakhlorfenolit sodium — sodium salt of phenol, it is well dissolved in water, solutions are colourless, transparent, inodorous. For disinfection 0,5 — 1% solutions are recommended. Splashes of solutions, getting into airways, cause irritation of mucous membranes, as limits use of this drug.

Cresols — aromatic compounds from group of phenols — receive from coke-oven coal tar in the form of the so-called crude carbolic acid or crude cresytic acid containing in addition to cresols, phenol, sulfonic acids, pitches and other products; in water are practically not dissolved. Crude is used carbolic acid (see) for processing of walls of bathrooms, contents of cesspools, dustbins, etc. For the same purposes it is reasonable to use sulfur-cresyl mix (3 parts of crude cresytic acid and 1 part the concentrated chamois to - you on weight or 30 parts of crude cresytic acid and 5,5 parts a chamois to - you on volume, and sulfuric to - that pour gradually during the stirring in crude cresytic acid) or alkaline cresols (mix of equal volumes of crude cresytic acid from 16% solution of caustic soda), which are applied in the form of 10% of solutions. For these purposes it is possible to use also soap and cresyl solution (300 g of crude cresytic acid and 500 and green soap on 10 l of water). All these drugs of brand also have off-flavor. Their use as larvicides is reasonable. Kreoline — a combination of crude cresytic acid with rosinate soaps — black-brown liquid of non-constant structure, with persistent smell of tar; during the mixing with water forms emulsions; it is applied in veterinary disinfection.

As a result of cleaning carbolic to - you pure cresols in three isomers — orto-, meta - and couple turn out crude-.

From pure cresols (see) and green soap industrially prepare lysol (see). Water solutions of lysol have alkali reaction that allows to wash in them traces of allocations, than and reliable disinfecting of linen speaks. 3 — 5 — 10% solutions are applied. The unpleasant, long remaining smell limits use of lysol.

Naftalizol (mix of the purified cresols with naphthene soaps; it is made in the factory way) on the action concedes to lysol a little; at the same time solutions of its brand also have off-flavor. The dignity can be used in the form of 3 — 5 — 10% of water solutions for processing domestic. installations. Apply hl. obr. in veterinary disinfection.

From inorganic to - t use hydrochloric acid at a pikelevaniye of crude skins in tanning production (see), for disinfecting of small amounts of drinking water (2,5 g salt to - you on 10 l of water on exposure of 5 min.), and also for disinfection of previously washed porcelain tableware (1% solution salt to - you within 30 min.).

From salts of heavy metals in the past widely applied solutions of corrosive sublimate (see. Mercury ), who in modern conditions almost do not use because of high toxicity and weak efficiency. Some organic compounds of mercury (Diocidum, metaphen, mertiolit, oxycyanide, merfenfenilrtutny borate, etilmerkurfosfat) apply to disinfection of hands of surgeons and tools.

Alcohols have weak bactericidal properties. Getting into a microbic cell, take away from it water and curtail protein. For disinfection of air use of vapors of propylene glycol at the rate of 1 g/m is recommended 3 and triethylene glycol — 10 mg/m 3 .

The desinfectants causing swelling and dissolution of protein — caustic alkalis (see), quarternary ammonium connections (see) and hydrated lime (see. Lime ). Solutions of caustic alkalis (see. Caustic soda , Caustic heat ) have the corroding effect on the majority of the materials adjoining to them and therefore in medical disinfection are not used. Are applied in veterinary disinfection.

The other desinfectants which are not entering in one of the groups called above: formalin, glutaraldegid, sodium metasilicate.

Formalin — water 40% solution of formaldehyde, possesses the expressed bactericidal and ovitsidny action already in weak solutions, but use in broad disinfection practice is interfered by irritant action on mucous membranes and respiratory tracts. Solutions of formaldehyde use for disinfecting of new hairdresser's brushes and wool (in prevention of a malignant anthrax). In medical practice formalin is applied in chamber disinfection (see. Disinfection chambers , Formalin ).

Glutaraldegid release in the form of 20% of a concentrate; on the mechanism of action it is similar to formaldehyde; in 2% of concentration apply to sterilization of products from rubber and polymeric materials.

Sodium metasilicate — sodium salt metasilicon to - you are a by-product by alumina production. White crystal powder, we will well dissolve in water, malotoksichen. It is recommended in the form of 1 — 2% of solution for disinfecting at intestinal and respiratory diseases of a bacterial etiology.

For neutralization of water, drain waters and organic garbage along with physical. agents and chemical substances use also biol, methods (see. Bioscrubbling , drain waters, Bacteria beds , Composting ).

The majority of the listed drugs recommended as chemical D. to page belongs to small and srednetoksichny. Nevertheless during the daily work with them there can be irritations of mucous membranes and skin therefore it is necessary to observe measures of personal prevention: to carry out work in a dressing gown, rubber gloves, safety spectacles and respirators. Use respirators of various brands: RU-60m with the boss of brand A, F-46, KS with the boss of brand A, etc.

See also Disinsection , Disinfection , Sterilization .

The bibliography see to St. Disinfection .

T. I. Istomina.