From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DERMATOZOONOSES (dermatozoonoses; Greek derma, dermat[os] skin, zoon animal + nosos a disease) — big group of the dermatosis caused by zooparasites. Especially often D. arise from stings of blood-sicking insects and mites, is more rare — from worm-shaped maggots and some species of worms. Meet in tropical countries, especially in Africa, in the USSR more often — in the southern districts.

Distinguish superficial D. at which zooparasites do not get into thickness of skin — an epizoa and deep when parasitizing happens in skin — a dermatozoa. Epizoa louses, fleas, bugs, bees, wasps, mosquitoes, midges, mosquitoes, and also cockroaches, bugs, caterpillars, bloodsuckers, scorpions, karakurt cause, dragons, etc.; the dermatozo is caused by mites, flies, helminths, the elementary.

Superficial dermatozoonoses

Pediculosis, dermatofiliaz, dermatitis from stings of bugs, cockroaches, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, bees, wasps and other insects, and also the skin rashes arising from contact with caterpillars, jellyfishes; here the damages of skin caused by bloodsuckers, scorpions, venomous snakes belong.

Parasitizing of louses on skin brings to its various patol, to changes depending on a species of a louse and features of its localization (see. Louses ). Parasitizing of fleas, as a rule, is followed by emergence of small hemorrhages (purpura pulicosa) with an urtikarny component (see. Dermatofiliaz ).

The small tortoiseshell arising from stings of bed bugs (limex lecturalis) is shown by the red edematous pruritic blisters or papules surrounded with a diffuse erythema.

Dermatitis from bugs is observed at crush of some of their types (Paederus albinilis, P. fuscipes, Mylabris triangulifera, M. frolovi, M. calida, M. elegantissima, etc.) as a result of toxic effect of the substances which are contained in a lymph of a bug on skin. In the tropical countries mass diseases of fishermen, vacationers, etc. from bugs of Paederus living on sandy coast of the seas, lakes, the rivers are possible. On skin there is a diffuse pruritic hyperemia with the hypostasis leading to emergence large (to dia. 2 — 3 cm) of bubbles with serous or hemorrhagic contents. At hit of a lymph of a bug heavy conjunctivitis develops in eyes.

Dermatitis from stings of cockroaches is caused by cockroaches of types of Cockroach, Cancrelat, Cucaracha, being inhabitants of dwellings of the person. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Egyptian (Polyphage sanssurei) meeting in the tropical countries, skusyvy epidermis of the person cause education on skin of the erosion or papulovesicules which are followed by a thermalgia and becoming covered by serous or serous and purulent crusts. Secondary infection with pyococci is often observed.

Small tortoiseshell from stings of mosquitoes is caused usually by mosquitoes of the Culicidae family; mosquitoes attack the person in summer, autumn time is more rare, is more often in marshy and forest places. From their stings rezkozudyashchy rashes strictly in the place of a sting develop; at persons with hypersensitivity of skin bubbles can form.

The phlebotodermia arises from stings of mosquitoes from the Phlebotomidae family. Especially often the phlebotodermia is observed in the countries of Asia, Africa, is more rare than Latin America; in the USSR — in Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and other southern districts. Damage of skin at stings of mosquitoes is characterized by the multiple reddish edematous papules with a nacreous shade which are transformed to pruriginous elements with the subsequent likhenization. The disease gets sometimes a persistent, long current, clinically reminding knotty prurigo (see).

The disease of a harar which is also caused by stings of flebotomus is widespread in Syria, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Algeria, Iran and other Arab countries. Harara, just as a phlebotodermia, develops at persons, sensibilized to saliva of flebotomus; the possibility of identity of a harara and a phlebotodermia is not excluded. Harara is characterized by the urtikarny and papular and vesicular rashes on open sites of skin which are transformed to dense large small knots of semi-spherical shape, a severe itch. Headaches, subfebrile temperature, perspiration, a sleep disorder and appetite are possible, children have an excitement.

Midges, fleas from the Simuliidae family, clouds attacking the person in aestivo-autumnal time, cause a peculiar damage of skin. On site stings there are small pruritic red specks which, unlike stings of fleas, within several days pass into pruritic brownish-red dense edematous papules at which top there can be bubbles with serous contents. Klien, a picture at the same time reminds an exudative mnogoformny erythema or herpes.

From stings of bees and wasps there is small tortoiseshell, weight a wedge, pictures the cut depends on quantity of stings and individual sensitivity of an organism. It is clinically characterized by various quantity of urtikarny elements — from single to drain painful dense bright pink infiltrates with sites of blanching in the center. Temperature increase, a headache, a faint, excitement is possible. Despite similarity the wedge, pictures, stings of bees give heavier picture, than stings of wasps. If the sting of a bee which is usually remaining in skin of the person not to remove, around it there is a granulematozny node.

Dermatitis from contact with a caterpillar (butterflies-zlatoustki, an oak silkworm, etc.) develops as a result of influence of the toxicant emitted by ferruterous cells of caterpillars; the acute beginning (in 10 — 15 min. after contact), emergence of an edematous and erythematic strip in the direction of a caterpillar, an itch and burning is characteristic. In a sensibilized organism rash gains violent character.

Stings of a spider-karakurta (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, L. mactans, L. ligubris) cause toxidermia (see). Karakurta live in droughty desert areas of South America, the majority of the countries of Asia, especially in Iraq, Afghanistan; the USSR meets seldom — in Kazakhstan, the Crimea. They attack the person during migration (May — September). Poison of these spiders is highly toxic, has allergenic property, strikes central and the autonomic nervous system. In 10 — 20 min. on site a sting appears edematous, dense, cyanotic color, infiltrate, painful at touch. Quickly body temperature increases (to 38 — 39 °), the concern, a headache, an adynamia, hypersalivation, an erythema and a face edema, a hyperemia of scleras, rash, preferential spotty and nodular character on all body appear; at children death is possible.

Dermatitis from contact with jellyfishes, especially «a charming fizaliya» both a jellyfish mud diver (sort Gonionema), and aktiniya is caused by influence of the poisonous liquid which is contained in nettling cells of their body and feelers. On site contact the diffuse edematous erythema quickly appears, against the background of a cut large bubbles with transparent contents form. Subjectively — burning, pain. Increase and morbidity regional limf, nodes, excitement, a headache, muscle, joints pains, feeling of suffocation, an asthmatoid state is possible; in several days these phenomena disappear. Inflammatory damages of skin can be also caused by influence of the toxicants which are in fins and thorns of some fishes (e.g., fish sphere, etc.) living in warm waters of the tropical countries.

Damage of skin from stings of bloodsuckers, scorpions, venomous snakes — see. Snakes , Bloodsuckers , Poisonous animals .

Deep dermatozoonoses

Akariaza, mioses, dermatogelmintoza, damages of skin protozoa.

Akariaza — group of the widespread diseases caused by parasitizing in leather of mites: itch mites (zuden) cause mange (see); a tick iron woundwort — demodicosis (see), an ixodic tick — hron, the migrating Aftselius's erythema — Lipshyuttsa (see. Erythema ); gamazovy, argasovy, Ixodic mites, etc. — akariaz (see).

Miaza are caused by penetration into skin and parasitizing of larvae of some species of flies and gadflies. Depending on penetration depth of larvae and the weight caused by them a wedge, manifestations distinguish skin, band and others mioses (see).

Dermatogelmintoza hl meet. obr. in the countries of tropical climate; are caused by parasitizing of some helminths. Treat them dracunculosis (see), cysticercosis (see), ankilostomidoza (see), filariases (see), schistosomatosis (see), strongyloidosis (see). Damages of skin are less often observed at ascaridosis (see), to a gnatostomoza (see), to a lagokhilaskaridoza (see), opisthorchosis (see), fascioliasis (see), to a spargapoza (see), etc. Dermatogelmintoza are characterized by emergence of urtikarny, papulovezikulezny and knotty rashes.

The creeping disease — the symptom complex caused by migration of larvae of helminths of animals in a human body is especially allocated (see. Larva migrans ).

Damage of skin protozoa is observed at amebiasis (see), widespread in the tropical countries, toxoplasmosis (see).

A wedge, a picture, treatment, the forecast and D.'s prevention — see separate nozol, forms (e.g., Akariaz , Dracunculosis etc.).

Bibliography: Babayants R. S. Skin and venereal diseases of tropical countries, M., 1972; Kassirsky I. A., etc. Guide to tropical diseases, M., 1974; A d a m s A. R. D. a. M an e GR and i t h B. G. Clinical tropical diseases, Oxford, 1966; Handbook of tropical dermatology and medical mycology, ed. by R.D.G. Simons, v. 1 — 2, Amsterdam, 1952.

P. S. Babayants.