From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DERMATOLOGY (Greek derma, dermat [os] skin + logos the doctrine) — the field of clinical medicine studying functions and structure of skin is normal also at pathology. Develops questions of an etiology, a pathogeny, diagnosis, therapy and prevention of a dermatosis, and also interrelation of diseases of skin with other morbid conditions of an organism.

Divide into the general and private. The general D. covers questions of morphology and physiology of normal and sore skin, the general patterns of development of skin diseases (see. Dermatosis ), principles of therapy, prevention etc. Private D. develops an etiology and a pathogeny, clinic, diagnosis, therapy, prevention of a separate dermatosis and syndromes. Here infectious, parasitic and viral diseases of skin, dermatitis, toxidermias, a professional, allergic dermatosis, an autotoksichesky dermatosis connected with a disease of internals, hereditary, system diseases of skin of an undetected etiology, etc. enter.

Modern methods of studying of diseases of skin — clinical, histologic, microbiological, virologic, immunological, physiological, genetic, biochemical, histochemical, electronic and microscopic, experimental and statistical.

By it is closely connected with other areas a wedge, medicine: venereology, infectious pathology, pediatrics, internal diseases, endocrinology, surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, neuropathology, ophthalmology, psychiatry etc.

Various diseases of skin are listed in the Egyptian papyruses (3000 years BC) and ways of their treatment are given; much attention is paid to cosmetics. Various skin diseases are mentioned in the Bible and measures of public and personal prevention are recommended. Clay tablets of library of Assurbanipal (7 century BC) contain references of the diseases similar to an ugly face, a filariosis, Maduri's disease. In medical sections of the Indian books «Veda» of a disease of skin, including «kushta» (leprosy), a small tortoiseshell, etc., are divided on easy and heavy, the means of their treatment (sulfur, lead, mercury, arsenic, plant substances, sulfur baths) applied at that time are specified.

In the Chinese manuscripts (more than 4000 years BC) the leprosy, the itch caused by «worms» are described. In 7 century in China the scab, vitiligo, an ichthyosis, an ugly face, eczema, etc. were known; in 100-volume work Wang Uye-ina, etc. (992) 24th volume are devoted to treatment of skin diseases at adults, and the 91st — at children. In the 30-volume Japanese work «Ishimpo» (892 — 894) a leprosy, perfigeration, the furunculosis, an anthrax, an ugly face, diseases of skin at children, at women, and also cosmetics are described. Many diseases of skin and a measure of their prevention are listed in the manuscript of «Wamyo-Ruijisho» (10 century).

The fractional information on skin diseases is available in Hippocrates's works (5 — 4 centuries BC); some terms applied by it (tumors, ulcers, phlyctenas, herpes, afta, an anthrax, pustules, a leprosy, etc.) remained. Pliny the Elder (1 century) described shingles;

A. Tsels (1 century) — a hair loss, a sycosis, a tinea profunda, furuncles, an anthrax, Greek elefantiaz (leprosy). K. Galen (2 — 3 centuries) began studying of a structure of skin, described some tumors, herpes, an ugly face, etc. Ibn-Xing (10 — 11 centuries) in the IV book of «A canon of medical science» in detail described an ugly face, phlegmon, a malignant anthrax, eczema, a scrofuloderma, a scirrhus, a parasitic worm, a leprosy, a leushmaniosis, the whole department devoted to cosmetics. The Arab physicians made on therapy of skin diseases much.

In D.'s development the merit of fr. dermatologists of 18 — 19 centuries is big Sovazh (F. Century of Sauvages, 1706 — 1767) described a pemphigus, an alopecia, offered the term «alopecia areata» for designation of a krugovidny hair loss; Laurie (A. Ch. Lorry, 1726 — 1783) in «Tractatus de morbis cutaneis» (1777) summed up knowledge of the era of dermatology. Aliber (J. L. Alibert, 1768 — 1837) entered the terms «dermatosis», «syphilides», «ichthyosis», «cancroids» into «Precis theorique et pratique des maladies de la peau» (1810 — 1818), etc., he divided skin diseases into 12 groups, created classification in the form of «a tree of a dermatosis» (1832), for the first time described a scleroderma, keloids, fungoid mycosis, etc. Biyett (L. Th. Biett, 1781 — 1840) distinguished 7 «orders» of a dermatosis; Raye (P. Rayer, 1793 — 1867) divided a dermatosis into diseases actually of skin, the diseases of appendages of skin caused by external factors (live or dead), and other diseases of skin; its two-volume guide appeared in French (1826, 1827), English (1835) and the German (1837 — 1839) languages.

Deverzhi (A. Devergie, 1798 — 1879) in details described eczema and red hair deprive, Zhiber (S. M. of Gibert, 1797 — 1866) — pink deprive. P. Kazenav described a lupus erythematosus, a leaflike pemphigus and drew the attention of physicians to a role of a nervous system in development of some dermatosis. A. Bazen developed the main concept of fr. school considering the majority of a dermatosis «reflection» various patol, conditions («diathesis») of an organism. In Ardi's guide (L. Ph. A. Hardy, 1811 — 1893) all dermatosis is divided on etiol, and to pathogenetic signs. F. Allopo described hron, ulcer and vegetans pyodermas, a resistant acrodermatitis, Jacques (L. Jacquet, 1860 — 1914) convincingly showed a role and value of reactivity of an organism in a pathogeny of many dermatosis.

Laye (Ch.Lailler, 1822 — 1893) together with J. Baretta created in the second half of 19 century the world famous museum of models in St. Ludovic's hospital in Paris. Vidal (E. Vidal, 1825 — 1893) laid the foundation of experimental dermatology. E. Benye was the first chairman of French about-va dermatologists and syphilologists.

L. B fate was headed by fr. Dermatolum. school at the end of 19 and the beginning of 20 century also wrote several outstanding monographs. His pupils to Zh. Darya — the author of the book «Precis de dermatologie» translated to many languages including into Russian (1930), R. Saburo are the author of the classical guide to a mycology of «Les teignes» (1910). Tibyerzh (G. Thibierge, 1856 — 1926) paid attention to a professional dermatosis; Bermann (Ch. L. Beurmann, 1851 — 1923) and A. Guzhero described a sporotrichosis, Dyubrey (W. Dubreuilh, 1857 — 1935) — sidiomikoza and a haemo dermatosis, F. Balzer — a pseudoxanthoma elastic, Audrey (Ch. Audry, 1865 — 1934) — the dermatosis connected with endocrine frustration. In 1936 in Paris there was a 8-volume guide of «Nouyelle pratique dermatologique».

The leading modern dermatologists of France are R. Degos, Dyuperra (V. of Duperrat), A. Civatte, P. Graciansky is the author of one of world-best color Dermatolum, the atlas, etc.

In Germany in 18 — 19 centuries the big contribution to development of dermatology was also made. Fater (A. Vater, 1684 — 1751), studying a structure of skin, in 1717 opened special nerve terminations in skin (Fater's little bodies — Pachini). Plenk (J. J. Plenck, 1738 — 1807) in the management of «Doctrina de Morbis Cutaneis» (1776) classified a dermatosis, having divided them into 14 groups on morfol, to signs. I. Shenleyn in 1839 opened the activator of a favus, Simone (S. Simon, 1810 — 1857) described a tick of Demodex folliculorum (1842).

F. Gebra — the founder is mute. Dermatolum, schools, developed the classification of a dermatosis based on data of a patogistologiya; in emergence of a dermatosis it attached special significance to influence of environmental factors. Together with M. Kaposha the guide to diseases of skin translated to many languages including in 1883 and into Russian is written to them. I. Neymann allocated a vegetans pemphigus, Auspitts (H. Auspitz, 1835 — 1886) described a triple phenomenon, characteristic of psoriasis, Kebner (H. Kobner, 1834 — 1904) — a skin sarcomatosis, a phenomenon of isomorphic reaction at psoriasis. P. Unna laid the foundation of studying of a gistomorfologiya of skin diseases. Y. Yadasson is the author of the guide of «Dermatologie» (1938), developed a number of the major questions of a pathogeny of many dermatosis and the mechanism of skin reactions; Hans (O. of Gans) wrote two-volume «Histologie der Ftautkrankheiten» (1925 — 1928), Y. Kirle — «Vorlesungen uber Histobiologie der menschlichen Haut und ihrer Erkrankungen» (1925, 1927), and Gertler (W. Gertler) — «Systematische Dermatologie» (1970 — 1973). From 1927 no of 1934 in Berlin there were 42 volumes of the capital management «Handbuch der Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten», and from 1965 to 1970 — 8 additional volumes to it.

In Italy in 1572 Merkurialis (H. Mercurialis, 1530 — 1606) published the first printing guide to D. «De morbis cutaneis...», M. Malpigi began the microscopic studying of a structure of skin continued by J. Morganyi and F. Pachini; Tommasoli (P. Tommasoli, 1857 — 1904) established an autotoksichesky origin of some dermatosis, Mayokki (D. Majocchi, 1849 — 1929) described a purpura ring-shaped teleangiektoidny and a granuloma trikhofitiyny.

In England the first classifications of skin diseases on morfol, were offered to signs by R. Willan, Beytmen (Th. Bateman, 1778 — 1821), anatomo-fiziol. classification was developed by Wilson (W. J. E. Wilson, 1809-1884). J. Getchinson described an ulcer form of the condensed erythema, summer a prurigo, Fox (W. T. Fox, 1836 — 1879) — contagious impetigo and a dyshydrosis, Krokker (H. R. Crocker, 1845 — 1909) — a ring-shaped erythema, Pedzhet (J. Paget, 1814 — 1899) — prekankrozny damages of skin. Whyte's monograph (R. P. White, 1855 — 1934) is translated to «Occupational affections of the skin» into Russian (1925).

The Hungarian scientist Gryubi (D. Gruby, 1810 — 1898) made a big contribution to a dermatomnkologiya, Norwegians Danielssen (D. Pages of Danielssen, 1815 — 1894) and Ts. Beck were authors of the first scientific monograph about a leprosy (1847), G. Gansen described the causative agent of a leprosy (1874), Dane N. Finsen offered treatment of a tuberculosis cutis a special black light lamp that was noted in 1903. Nobel Prize.

Founder amer. Dermatolum, schools of Dyuring (L. A. Duhring, 1845 — 1913) allocated herpetiform dermatitis, Bowen (J. T. Bowen, 1857 — 1941) — a prekankrozny dermatosis, Fordyce (J. A. Fordyce, 1858 — 1925) together with Fox (G.H.Fox, 1846 — 1937) — a disease of apokriniy sweat glands, the Guide (J. N. Hyde, 1840 — 1910) — knotty a prurigo, U. Osler — inborn teleangiectasias with hemorrhages; Gilchrist (Th. Page of Gilchrist, 1862 — 1927) the special type of a zymonematosis, Shamberg (J. F. Schamberg, 1870 — 1934) — a progressive pigmental dermatosis described. Pyoz (W. A. Pusey, 1865 — 1940) entered cryotherapy into D.'s practice. Sutton (R. L. Sutton, 1878 — 1952) is known as the author of the capital guide of «Diseases of the Skin» which sustained many editions, and W. F. Lever — the guide to a patogistologiya of skin translated in 1958 to Russian. Since 1900 in the USA there are regularly year-books of papers of the major works on D. («Year-Book of Dermatology and Syphilologv»).

In the first half of 19 century the main attention it is mute. dermatologists it was concentrated on studying of morphology of various diseases of skin, and communication of a dermatosis with the general frustration of an organism interested them a little. On the contrary, fr. dermatologists obviously revaluated the doctrine distributed at them about «dyscrasias».

At the end of 19 century, with blossoming of bacteriology, efforts of scientific all countries were sent to search for activators of a dermatosis; pathogenic fungi, piogenic cocci, mycobacteria of tuberculosis and leprosy, viruses, etc. were open and studied.

D.'s development in 20 century went preferential in the direction of experimental and clinical studying of a pathogeny of a dermatosis on the basis of normal and patol, physiology from positions of a complete organism, a condition of its reactivity; deep studying of processes of an allergy and immunity, biochemical, and exchange processes began, various functional trials and researches were widely used, modern idea of essence of a dermatosis and their bonds with the environment develops.

Domestic D.'s sources are studied a little. They should be looked for in various hand-written «zelnik» and «herbalists», affairs Pharmaceutical order (see). The Russian doctors in 18 century on Dermatolum, subjects defended several doctoral dissertations, are preferential in foreign high fur boots, e.g. S. G. Zybelin about soaps (Leiden, 1764), I. P. Maksimovich about a leprosy (Konigsberg, 1773), etc. Everything, according to the estimates of V. A. of the Nevsky (1960), in 18 century and in the first half of 19 century of 76 Russian doctors defended dissertations according to D., and N. I. Gusakov (1974) in the Central historical archive found apprx. 100 unpublished works on questions D. in Russian and foreign languages. The Russian dermatologists, borrowing all progressive of the Western European science, laid new, original ways, combining the theory and practice, aiming to place achievements of science at service to the people.

At the beginning of 19 century M. Ya. Mudroye indicated the need at inspection of the patient «to pay attention to skin, its dryness and humidity, warmth and cold, color and rashes». I. E. Dyadkovsky paid to studying of skin diseases attention. S. P. Botkin wrote work «About reflex phenomenons in vessels of skin and about reflex sweat» (1867). The special attention of the Russian dermatologists was drawn by questions of relationship of an organism with the environment, communication of change of skin with frustration in other bodies and systems; V. V. Lotin (1861), N. A. Belogolovy (1862), N. A. Shestov (1866) works were devoted to a problem of permeability of skin.

The fruitful way of development of domestic D. was accurately defined by the founder D. in Russia A. G. Polotebnov. In «Dermatological researches from clinic of professor A. G. Polotebnov» (SPb., 1886, 1887) he wrote: «Pathology of skin represents fine live laboratory with the experiments conducted by the nature... to study, understand and explain these experiences, to study an interconnection and dependence of various factors, to define value of these changes for all organism makes a direct and direct problem of dermatology. Then, and only then, this industry of clinical medicine will be of all-medical and biological interest». This progressive direction based on fiziol, I. M. Sechenov's doctrine and a wedge. S. P. Botkin's concepts about a nervosism, on the principle «to consider and study an organism as a unit», providing pathogenetic approach to the sick person, created by A. G. Polotebnov, formed a basis of works of his pupils. Among them there was M. I. Stukovenkov heading department of skin and venereal diseases in Kiev and aiming on its expression, «to make clinic of skin patients of clinic of skin diseases», A. Ya. Bruyev is the first department chair in Kharkiv and I. F. Zelenev. P. V. Nikolsky who was consistently carrying out the idea of integrity of an organism, emphasizing the leading role of a neurotrophical factor in an etiology and a pathogeny of many dermatosis belonged to the same school; the phenomenon of amotio of epidermis found by it at a leaflike pemphigus became world-famous.

In T. P. Pavlov's works the clinicodiagnostic direction was combined with a thin gistol, the analysis, the close interrelation of a dermatosis and pathology of internals, the neurogenic mechanism of a pathogeny of many dermatosis was shaded. This direction characterizes scientific activity and his numerous pupils (And from them at different times headed university departments of skin and venereal diseases). Among them are allocated V. V. Ivanov — the founder of the Dermatology (1913 — 1914) magazine, and after «The Russian messenger of dermatology» (1924 — 1931), laid the foundation of domestic professional dermatology, A. I. Lebedev (1887 — 1923) is the author of the first Russian leaders on a patogistologiya (Tashkent, 1923), P. S. Grigoriev, S. T. Pavlov, etc.

Prominent representatives St. Petersburg Dermatolum, schools were O. W. Petersen — the first professor of department of skin and venereal diseases in-that improvements of doctors in St. Petersburg, P. F. Bohr, opened the activator of a skin leushmaniosis (1898), N. A. Morozov who found changes of bones at Beck's sarcoid (1908), A. N. Sokolov who described the activator of a dracunculosis (1908), D. F. Reshetillo is the author of the first Russian leaders on a leprosy.

In Moscow un-those a course of «syphilitic and cutaneous diseases» since 1863 on 1869 and from 1884 to 1892 were read by N. P. Mansurov (who published since 1863 within nearly 20 years separate releases the book «Cutaneous Diseases»), and from 1869 to 1884 — D. I. Naidyonov. The founder Moscow Dermatolum, schools A. I. Pospelov made «The short textbook of skin diseases», the 7th prod. to-rogo left in 1912. He described phenomena of «the crumpled tissue paper» at an atrophy of skin, retraction of hillocks from pressing by the probe at a tubercular lupus, damage of a mucous membrane of a mouth at red flat herpes and psoriasis, developed a technique of cosmetic massage.

Interest in questions of the organization of health care and public work was characteristic feature of the advanced Russian physicians; domestic dermatologists «always differed in the aspiration to connect damages of skin with diseases of internals, a nervous system and in general all organism; they never deserved the name of narrow specialists» (V. V. Ivanov, 1913). These progressive features most clearly were shown after Great October socialist revolution. From numerous pupils of A. I. Pospelov

S. L. Bogrov, A. A. Brychev (1876 — 1945), E. S. Glavke are allocated there is a founder skin venerol. in-that in Odessa (1922), F. N. Grinchar, G. I. Meshchersky, P. A. Pavlov (1856 — 1928), N. A. Chernogubov, M. A. Chlenov (1871 — 1941), etc.

A. N. Araviysky, A. M. Ariyevich, A. A. Bogolepov, S. L. Bogrov, P. N. Kashkin, L. N. Mashkilleyson, V. Ya. Nekachalov, N. A. Chernogubov, N. D. Sheklakov devoted to questions of a dermatomikologiya the works, etc.

O. N. Podvysotskaya and I. I. Chernyavsky for the first time in Europe studied a chromozymonematosis, Ya. A. Meriin in detail studied it the activator. M. M. Bremener, I. B. Veynerov, N. L. Rossiyansky, A. I. Sakhnovskaya, N. S. Smeloye, etc. dealt with problems of a tuberculosis cutis; a pyoderma — And. M. Krichevsky, S. T. Pavlov, N. A. Chernogubov, etc.

to A. A. Antonyev, M. P. Batunin, F. N. Grinchar, A. P. Dolgov, A. To S. Zenin, A.S. Raben, B. A. Rakhmanov, N. A. Torsuyev, etc. possess merits in studying of clinic and prevention of occupational diseases. V. V. Ivanov and N. S. Vedrov developed an original method of drop tests.

B dealt with issues of a leprology. I. Kedrovsky, I. N. Perevodchikov, N. A. Torsuyev, A. A. Stein, N. F. Pavlov, N. I. Fedorov, etc.

The skin leushmaniosis (a disease Bohr) was studied by E. N. Pavlovsky, I. I. Gitelzon, N. I. Hodukin, N.I. Latyshev, P. V. Kozhevnikov, N. F. Rodyakin, etc., a tropical dermatosis — A. N. Araviysky, R. S. Babayants, a pathogeny of Eczema - C. T. Pavlov, O. N. Podvysotskaya, And. Item Jordan, etc.

Valuable researches on neurodermatitis were published by Yu. K. Skripkin, A. A. Feldman, G. I. Landa, etc. A. I. Kartamyshev, M. M. Zheltakov, B. A. Somov's works are devoted to questions of guarding braking in therapy of a dermatosis, etc. M. P. Demyanovich offered an effective method of treatment of itch.

The histology and a patogistologiya of skin were studied by E. Ya. Gertsenberg, K. I. Kalantayevskaya, A. I. Kartamyshev, N. A. Torsuyev, etc. Biochemical, processes in skin V. N. Dobronravov, S. A. Kaplansky, I. I. Matusis, M. G. Mgebrov, etc. were engaged in studying; questions of reactivity of an organism — B. A. Zadorozhny, II. M. Zalkan, P. V. Kozhevnikov, S. T. Pavlov, N. L. Rossiyansky, O. K. Shaposhnikov, etc. Questions of the organization of fight against a dermatosis were developed by S.E. Gorbovitsky, O. P. Komov, A. M. Krichevsky, A. I. Pyatikop, A. A. Studnitsin, H. M Turanov, etc.

In 1931 under the editorship of. And. P. Iordana there was a guide «Clinic of diseases of skin» written by a number of the Soviet dermatologists; from 1959 to 1964 there was «A multivolume guide to dermatology and venereology»; «The reference book of the dermatovenerologist» under the editorship of A. A. Studnitsin and H. M. Turanova (prod. 1964 and 1971). A number of the original guides to D. or its sections are written by P. V. Nikolsky

(1923), V. Ya. Arutyunov (1932), P. S. Grigoriev (1933), G. I. Meshchersky (1936), A. I. Kartamyshev (1952), M. A. Rozentul (1952), M. M. Zheltakov (1957), L. N. Mashkilleyson (1957), 3. N. Grzhebin and G. S. Tseraidis (1960), N. D. Sheklakov (1961), S. T. Pavlov (1969), A. A. Studnitsin and B. G. Stoyanov (1971), K. A. Kalantayevskoy (1972), B. M. Pashkov (1973), etc. Many of these managements were republished repeatedly. For years of the Soviet power in scientific research institute, at departments of skin and venereal diseases many collections of works on are published.

Development of the present stage of D. is promoted by progress of a submicroscopy, biochemistry, especially to allergology and the geneticists who changed ideas of reactivity of an organism. Works about a role of a pigment of skin, about value of reticuloendothelial system, about functions and value of a sympathetic nervous system, closed glands brought a lot of new in understanding of an etiology and pathogeny of a number of a dermatosis, opened ways etiol, and pathogenetic therapy. In development of these questions the big contribution was made by the Soviet dermatologists paying much attention to studying of a pathomorphism of skin diseases (see. Pathomorphism ), immunol. and allergic processes, and also professional, gerontol. to D.'s aspects, etc. (N. S. Smelov and E. F. Belyaeva, I. I. Pototsky, Yu. Ya. Ashmarin, A. A. Kalamkaryan, Yu. K. Skripkin, etc.). Questions of vasculites of skin (O. K. Shaposhnikov, etc.), pemphiguses (N. D. Sheklakov, N. A. Torsuyev and V. N. Romanenko, L. Ya. Trofimova), genetic aspects of dermatology (G. B. Belenky, etc.), infectious diseases of skin (L. N. Mashkilleyson, A. A. Studnitsin, etc.), a dermatosis at children are studied (S. Ya. Golosovker, M. T. Brill, Yu. K. Skripkin, A. A. Studnitsin, B. G. Stoyanov, etc.).

In the USSR considerable success in fight against an infectious dermatosis is achieved; are completely liquidated a parasitic worm, incidence of dermatomycoses, a pyoderma, leushmaniosis of skin, by a leprosy, a tuberculosis cutis, etc. is reduced. Treatment of patients with hron, a dermatosis is based on the principle of dispensary observation, a cut is carried out by dermatologists in policlinic, and also to a skin venerol. clinic (see). Prevention of a professional dermatosis is carried out by periodic medical examinations of workers.

The scientific and methodical center for the organization of fight against skin and venereal diseases is Central dermatovenerologic research the in-t (TsKVI). Here it is carried out organizational and research, methodical materials for practical doctors on diagnosis, treatment, prevention of diseases of skin are created. It is paid to questions of prevention of a professional dermatosis much attention, including in rural areas (in connection with use of a number of chemical substances in agriculture), prevention of dermatitis, dermatomycoses, etc. Questions of prevention and increase in efficiency of treatment of a pyoderma, eczema, neurodermatitis at children are developed; methods of laboratory diagnosis are improved (a histochemistry, a submicroscopy, etc.). Research skin venerol. in-you are available also in Alma-Ata, Kharkiv, Sverdlovsk, Bitter, Ashgabat, Minsk, Tashkent, Tbilisi. In 1948 the scientific research institute on studying of a leprosy (Astrakhan) is created.

To the second half of 19 century of special departments of skin and venereal diseases in Russia did not exist, and only on some medical f-takh acquainted with skin diseases of students at departments of pathology and therapy only theoretically and not systematically. In 1869 the first independent departments of skin diseases in Medicochirurgical academy (St. Petersburg) and on a medical f-takh of the Moscow and Warsaw high fur boots were almost at the same time organized; a little later they were created also in other high fur boots (Kiev, Kharkiv). In the USSR D.'s teaching is obligatory in all medical in-ta and on all medical f-takh, and also in all average medical educational institutions. Specialization and improvement of doctors in D. is carried out to the USSR at departments of some medical in-t, in-t of improvement of doctors and in research dermatovenerol. in-ta.

Russian sifilidologichesky and dermatological about-in V. M. Tarnovskim in St. Petersburg in 1885 was based; in 1891 A. I. Pospelov based Moscow venereologic and dermatological about-in. In the USSR exists All-Union about-in dermatologists and venereologists, combining all republican branches.

In the USSR the best museums of models are organized at TsKVI and department of skin and venereal diseases of the 1st MMI of I. M. Sechenov.

Data on congresses of dermatologists and venereologists, editions of magazines on a dermatovenereology, shots of doctors, existence of bed fund for patients with skin and venereal diseases — see. Venereology .


History — Gitman S. M. Founders of a domestic dermatosifilidologiya, in book: Vopr. dermas, and veins., under the editorship of H. M. Turanova, page 63, M., 1953; P. V. Istoriya's Skinners of dermatology, Mnogotomn, the management on dermas. - veins., under the editorship of S. T. Pavlov, t. 2, page 9, M., 1961, bibliogr.; Pavlov S. T., etc. Achievements of the Soviet dermatology (1917 — 1967), Vestn, dermas, and veins., No. 10, page 3, 1967; Fifty years of the Soviet health care, under the editorship of B. V. Petrovsky, page 499, M., 1967; Yurinov T. M. A short sketch on stories of dermatology (The ancient East, the Classical antiquity), Works Kazansk. medical in-that, century 1, page 1, 1946, bibliogr.; G e r t 1 e of W.Systematische Dermatologie und Grenzge-biete, Bd 3, S. 2127, Lpz., 1973, Bibliogr.

Textbooks, guides and reference media — Gitman G. M. The bibliographic index of the Russian dermatology and venereology for 1900 — 1931, M. — L., 1935; it, the Bibliographic index of the Soviet dermatology and venereology for 1932 — 1958, t. 2 — 4, M., 1951 — 1964; To Darya Zh. Fundamentals of dermatology, the lane with fr., M. — L., 1930, bibliogr.; Zheltakov M. M. Skin and venereal diseases, M., 1964; 3 e of N and A. S's N. and T about r with at e in N. A. Textbook of skin and venereal diseases, M., 1960; Clinic of diseases of skin, under the editorship of. A. P. Iordana, M. — L., 1931; P. V. Skinners. General dermatology, L., 1970, bibliogr.; Mashkilleyson L. N. Treatment and prevention of skin diseases, M., 1964; The Multivolume guide to a dermatovenereology, under the editorship of G. T. Pavlova, t. 2 — 3, M., 1961 — 1964; Nikolsky P. V. Diseases of skin, M. — L., 1930; Pavlov, etc. Skin and venereal diseases, M., 1975; Rozentul M. A. General therapy of skin diseases, M., 1970, bibliogr.; With to r and p to and Yu. K. and Sharapov G. Ya. N. Skin and venereal diseases, M., 1972; With t at d-nitsin A. A., Stoyanov B. G. and Sharapov and G. Ya. Skin diseases at children, M., 1971, bibliogr.; D e g about s R. et Lortat-Jacob E. Dermatologie, P., 1971; G e r t 1 e r W. Systematische Dermatologie und Grenzgebiete, Bd 1 — 3, Lpz., 1970 — 1973; G r and with i a n s k y P. et BoulleS. Atlas de dermatologie, t. 1—5, P., 1952 — 1955; Handbuch der Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten, hrsg, v. J. Jadassohn, Bd 1—23, B., 1927 — 1934 (Erganzungswerk, hrsg. v. A. Marehionini, Bd 1—8, B., 1959 — 1969); O r m s b y O. S. a. M o n t g o m e r y H. Diseases of the skin, Philadelphia, 1955; Sutton R. Diseases of the skin, St Louis, 1956; Textbook of dermatology, v. 1 — 2, ed. by A. Rook a. o. Oxford, 1975.

Periodicals — The messenger of dermatology and venereology, M., since 1957 (1924 — 1931 — Venereology and dermatology, 1932 — 1936 — the Soviet messenger of dermatology and venereology, 1937 — 1956 — the Messenger of venereology and dermatology); The Medical abstract magazine, the Section XI — Dermatology, Venereology, M., since 1963; Russian messenger of dermatology, M., 1924 — 1930; Acta dermato-venerolo-gica, Stockholm, since 1920; Actas dermo-sifi-liograficas, Madrid, since 1909; Annales de dermatologie et de syphiligraphie, R., since 1869; Annali italiani di dermatologia e sifilogra-fia, Napoli, since 1945; Archiv fur dermatolo-gische Forschung, V. u. a., since 1971 (1869 — 1955 — Archiv fiir Dermatologie und Syphilis, 1955 — 1971 — Archiv fiir klinische und experimentelle Dermatologie); British Journal of Dermatology and Syphilis, L., since 1888; Dermatologica, Basel, since 1939; Dermatolo-gische Wochenschrif t, Lpz., since 1882; Excerpta medica, Section XIII — Dermatology and Venereology, Amsterdam, since 1947; Der Hau-tarzt, V., since 1950; Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Baltimore, since 1938; Zeitschrift fiir Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten, B., since 1946; Zentralblatt fiir Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten, V., since 1921.

H. S. Smelov, H. A. Torsuyev.