From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DERMATOGLYPHICS (Greek derma, dermat[os] skin + glypho to cut, engrave). The term is offered by Cummings and Midlo (H. Cummins, Ch. Midlo) in 1926 for designation of set of epidermal patterns of crests of fingers, palms and soles of the person and primacies.

Rice 1. Scheme of a structure of skin of a palm and sole: 1 — a time of a sweat gland; 2 — a comb of skin; 3 — a groove of skin; 4 — a corneous layer; 5 — a malpigiyevy layer; 6 — a basal layer. Fig. 2 — 4. The main papillary patterns (a pattern — the area of a finger, palm, a sole having the striation similar to an outside contour; in drawings the black line showed only an outside contour): fig. 2 — an arch; fig. 3 — a loop; fig. 4 — a curl.
Fig. 5. Some features of a dermatoglyphics of fingers, palms and soles: normal (for comparison): palm, and, b, with, d — manual triradiusa of the II—V fingers, t — axial triradius in proximal situation, And, In, With, D — the main palmar lines; a sole, and, b, with, d, e — manual triradiusa of the II—V fingers, f and p' — bottom triradiusa, z' — zigodaktilny triradius (it is located distalny manual);
Fig. 6. Some features of a dermatoglyphics of fingers, palms and soles: at a trisomy of D1 (Patau's syndrome): axial triradius t is located atypically, emergence of a radial loop of R on the V finger, patterns of Ld on the tenor (an eminence of a thumb) of a palm and a S-shaped pattern on foot is characteristic;
Fig. 7. Some features of a dermatoglyphics of fingers, palms and soles: at a trisomy of G1 (Down syndrome): the combination of two axial triradius — t and atypical t is characteristic, ulnarny loops of U on fingers of hands, including on II (where it is normal of it is not present), emergence of patterns in the III interdigital interval of L and on a hypothenar (an eminence of a little finger) — Lu; a cross fold of I on a palm, the only fold 2 on a little finger and a tibial arch of At on a sole;
Fig. 8. Some features of a dermatoglyphics of fingers, palms and soles — at a trisomy of Et (Edwards's syndrome): existence of arches And on all fingers of hands, simplification of the drawing of patterns on palms and soles is characteristic;
Fig. 9. Some features of a dermatoglyphics of fingers, palms and soles — at the isolated inborn heart diseases: increase in number of ulnarny loops of U, an atypical arrangement of the line A, lack of a manual triradius with and lines of a palm C (1) is characteristic; multiple palmar axial triradiusa of t and t' and their duplication are characteristic tt, t't', emergence of an ulnarny loop of Lu on a hypothenar of a palm and tibialny loops of Lt on a hypothenar of soles.

For the first time paid attention to these patterns to N. Grew in 1684. The first detailed description and classification of skin patterns on palms and fingers of hands were made by Ya. Purkinye in 1823. Stability of these patterns during life of the individual was scientifically proved by F. Galton in 1892. It formed a scientific basis for D.'s use in criminalistics (see. Identification of the personality ) and in the researches devoted to studying of heredity of the person (see the Geneticist of the person). For the first time D. in ethnic researches was used by Wilder (H. N of Wilder) in 1904, and in medical — Cummings and J. Sicomo in 1923 then interest in a research D. considerably increased in medicine. Systematic accumulation of material was promoted by acceptance of the classification of skin patterns offered by Cummings and Midlo.

Ideas of anatomy, an embryogenesis and genetics of skin patterns are the cornerstone of a dermatoglifichesky method of a research. The main characteristics of D. are minution — features of structure of crests, patterns — arches, loops and curls, between to-rymi transitional patterns, and triradiusa — places of a convergence of crests of three directions where three radiant, one of which is considered the main thing are defined can be allocated and forms the main line (fig. 1 — 9).

In an embryogenesis forms from a mesenchyma and an ectoderm during the period between the 6th and 19th week of pregnancy. Thus, on D.'s condition it is possible to judge indirectly various disturbances in formation of the bodies and systems which are derivatives of an ectoderm and a mesenchyma.

Gross violations of D. are established at a number of chromosomal anomalies. It allows to use it for diagnosis of some chromosomal diseases, a Down syndrome (see. Down disease ), Patau and Edwards's syndromes, etc. At Edwards's syndrome (a trisomy of the 18th chromosome) existence of arc patterns on all 10 fingers of hands in 85% of cases and more than on 6 fingers — in 15% of cases is characteristic. Normal similar options D. meet extremely seldom. Besides, D. is changed at a dysplasia of extremities, malformations of various bodies, and also there are instructions on inborn change of D. at a fenilketonuriya, a diabetes mellitus, Wilson's disease, a retinoblastoma, a carcinoma of chest gland, a leukosis, schizophrenia, epilepsy, mental retardation, stutter and many other diseases. At the isolated inborn heart diseases it is considerable more often than in control, note: 1) increase in frequency of occurrence of ulnarny loops and reduction in the frequency of occurrence of arches and curls on fingers of hands; 2) the abnormal termination of some lines on a palm; 3) distal provision of a palmar axial triradius; 4) multiple palmar axial triradiusa, etc. At some of them D. is changed not only at patients, but also at their relatives that gives the grounds to assume the heredo-familial nature of these diseases. Pre-natal defeat of a fruit a virus of a rubella and other teratogenic agents also results in anomalies of. These data have a certain value for the solution of a number of medical problems: establishments of an etiology and a pathogeny of various diseases, diagnoses of hereditary anomalies, zigotnost of twins, correlations a genotype — a phenotype, and also the tasks facing medicogenetic consultations and so forth. Simplicity of the equipment, comparative simplicity and a sufficient accuracy rate of a dermatoglifichesky method allow to use it as additional diagnostic test.

Bibliography: N. P. tanks, Bulano in A. G. and Burakovsky G. G. Quantitative dermatoglifichesky diagnostic method of a Down syndrome, Vopr. okhr. mat. also it is put., t. 17, No. 6, page 8, 1972, bibliogr.; Gindilis V. M. and Fino-genova S.A. Heritability of characteristics of a manual and palmar dermatoglyphics of the person, Geneticist, t. 12, No. 8, page 139, 1976, bibliogr.; Ili and r e of Yu. D. Dermatoglifik of c in medicine, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 7, page 61, 1973, bibliogr.; Holt S. Century of The genetics of dermal ridges, Springfield, 1968; Schaumann B. Alter M. Dermatoglyphics in medical disorders, N. Y., 1976; S h i o n o H. Kadowaki J. Dermatoglyphics of congenital abnormalities without chromosomal aberrations, Clin. Pediat., v. 14, p. 1003, 1975, bibliogr.; Verbov J. Clinical significance and genetics of epidermal ridges — a review of dermatoglyphics, J. invest. Derm., v. 54, p. 261, 1970.

Yu. D. Shor.