From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DERATIZATION MEANSSemifat tracingmechanical devices, chemicals and biological agents for destruction of rodents.

Mechanical devices

use Mechanical devices independently or in combination with chemical drugs. Pages divide these D. into traps and the killing devices. Wire traps on a wooden basis are used for catch of house mice.

For catching of rats fish-traps — the wire traps divided into two unequal parts were widely adopted, between to-rymi the shaking ladder is established. When the rat steps on a ladder, it falls and the rat gets to a cell. The ladder exempted from weight of a rodent closes inlet opening, the fish-trap is ready to reception of the following rat. It is a trap of repeated automatic action. V. N. Tishliyev's trap is constructed by the same principle, but has two valves ladders that increases reliability of this trap. For attraction of rodents in traps put a bait. From among self-made traps quite often use the so-called falling platforms — the boards with the shaking ladder established over a barrel with water.

Spring and arc traps belong to the killing devices. The spring traps (like Gero) strengthened on the wooden, plastic or metal basis are produced two sizes: larger — for rats, smaller — for mice. Arc traps (No. 0 and No. 1) use for catching of rats, gophers, sandworts, water rats, etc. Traps establish about escapings of holes or on the way of the movement of rodents (see). As a bait attach pieces of the black bread soaked with vegetable oil, sausage, cheese, vegetables and so forth to a hook of a trap. The bait shall attract to itself that species of rodents against which it is applied.

Chemical means

Chemical means — poisons for extermination of rodents (ratitsida) and the drugs which are frightening off rodents and by that the protecting various materials from damage by their rodents or to interfering penetration of rodents into rooms.

Depending on a way of introduction to an organism of a rodent of a ratitsida divide into intestinal and respiratory (fumigants). Treat intestinal poisons: zoocoumarin, ratindan, krysid (see), thiosemicarbazide, phosphide of zinc, ftoratsetata of sodium and barium, ftoratsetamid, thallous sulfate, barium carbonate, etc. As fumigants (see) carbon monoxide, carbonic acid, chloropicrin, etc. are used.

Intestinal poisons use in the form of food baits or powder for dusting of holes and tracks of rodents. Fumigants apply to processing of vessels, elevators, etc. In view of high virulence fumigants in settlements are not applied to the person.

Zoocoumarin — powder of light gray color, with a characteristic smell. In water it is insoluble. It is capable to collect in an organism of an animal: causes slow development of the toxic phenomena thanks to what at rodents it is not developed vigilances to drug. Death of rodents occurs after numerous (within several days) reception of very small doses. Rodents perish as a result of severe bleedings and hemorrhages in internals. At a dose of 0,2 mg daily (during 4 days) gray rats perish on 8 — the 14th days Zookumarin is issued in the form of the working mix containing 0,5 or 1,0% of pure drug with starch or bone dust and is used for preparation of the poisoned baits, for dusting of holes and tracks of rodents, and also water. Drug is almost not dangerous to the person and domestic animals. There were data on stability of separate populations of gray rats to this drug.

Ratindan — mix of an effective agent of a difenatsin with an inactive filler (starch). Difenatsin in water is insoluble, is well dissolved in vegetable oil and organic solvents. A dose of 0,01 mg daily (during 3 — 4 days) causes death of gray rats on 6 — the 8th days. At separate individuals vigilance to drug can be developed. Drug is produced in the form of the working mix containing 0,5% of an effective agent; on the nature of action on an organism of a rodent it is similar to zoocoumarin. To the person and domestic animals it is a little dangerous though poisoning of chickens, pigs and other pages in some cases can be observed - x. animals.

Hlorofasinon, fentolatsin, pivalilindandion and other derivatives of oxycoumarin and an indandion, on the nature of the action and a route of administration a little different from zoocoumarin and a ratindan.

Thiosemicarbazide (basis) — crystal powder of white color, soluble in more hotly and worse in a cold water. Gray rats perish at a dose of 12 mg, house mice — 1 mg. Because of the high content of drug in a bait (5%) rodents rather badly eat it. Eating of sublethal doses causes drug resistance, edges extends also on krysid. It is dangerous to domestic animals.

Phosphide of zinc, or phosphorous zinc — powder of dark gray color, with a strong smell of garlic. In water it is insoluble. In a stomach of a rodent under the influence of salt to - you emit the hydrogen phosphide causing poisoning. Drug is toxic for other animals and the person. A lethal dose for a gray rat of 15 — 30 mg, for a house mouse of 3 — 5 mg. It is applied in the food poisoned baits (2 — 5%), it is rare for dusting of water. It is widely applied as a part of grain baits to fight against gophers and sandworts — wreckers of agriculture and keepers of the causative agent of plague in the natural centers. At prolonged use of drug at rodents to it vigilance can be developed.

Glyfluor — the technical product containing 72% mix of actively active ingredients (1,3-difluorine-propyl alcohol-2 and 1 fluorine, 3-chlorpropyl alcohol-2). Represents liquid of light brown color, with a characteristic smell, well alcohol-soluble and water. Has selective toxicity concerning rodents. The minimum lethal dose of pure drug for rats of 7 — 10 mg, for speckled gophers — 1 — 2 mg. Practically it is not toxic for birds and domestic animals. It is recommended generally for fight against speckled, small, reddish and long-tailed gophers and voles in the form of the poisoned baits containing 0,3 — 0,6% of drug.

Ftoratsetamid — crystal powder of white or grayish color, well water soluble. A lethal dose for a gray rat of 7 — 10 mg, for a house mouse of 0,4 mg. It is very dangerous to the person and domestic animals. Apply in the food poisoned baits (with the maintenance of 0,5% of drug), to production of liquid baits (0,5% of solutions). Possesses also systemic insecticidal action, causing death of the blood-sicking ectoparasites (e.g., fleas) eating on the rodents who received poison.

Ftoratsetata of sodium and barium — the drugs similar on the features and the nature of action. Crystal powders of white color, well water soluble. A lethal dose for a gray rat apprx. 1 mg. Ftoratsetat of sodium is a little more toxic, than ftoratsetat barium. The phenomena of poisoning develop very quickly and within several hours lead of rodents to death. Possess systemic insecticidal action. As well as ftoratsetamid, are dangerous to the person and domestic animals.

Barium carbonate (barium carbonate) — white powder, water-insoluble. Under the influence of salt to - you a gastric juice turn into barium chloride which causes poisoning. A lethal dose for a gray rat apprx. 120 — 200 mg. To the person it is a little dangerous.

Monoftorin — is recommended for fight against rodents in settlements and the natural centers of some infections as a part of the food poisoned baits (1%). In comparison with phosphide of zinc is more effective, it is used in baits in smaller contents. It is dangerous to the person and domestic animals.

Sulphurous anhydride — gaseous drug, is 2,5 times heavier than air, rodents perish in the presence in air of 0,1% of drug, however under natural conditions when gas shall get into holes of rodents, it increase concentration to 2%. It turns out combustion of sulfur in special devices or on baking sheets. Apply also liquefied gas in cylinders to deratization of vessels. It is dangerous to the person.

Carbon dioxide gas has no color and a smell, it is 1,5 times heavier than air. Death of rodents occurs at the content of 500 — 700 g/m 3 in air of rooms. It is dangerous to the person.

Tsianplav — the gray powder containing up to 55% hydrocianic to - you. Adjoining to moisture of air and the soil, decays and emits vapors hydrocianic to - you. It is used for fight against rodents on vessels, in granaries. For processing of holes of rodents in the natural centers of plague enter into each hole on 1 chayn. l. drug. The processed holes fill up with sand or the earth. It is dangerous to the person.

A cyclone (cyclone-diskoid) — the paper disks impregnated hydrocianic to - that. Deratization of rooms requires 1 disk on 1 m 3 air that corresponds to 0,6% of concentration of hydrogen cyanide.

Chloropicrin possesses a pungent smell, causes dacryagogue. It is applied to aeration of the enclosed space (warehouses, granaries, etc.) and holes of rodents. Their death occurs at concentration of gas in air of 1 — 2 ml/m 3 . The poisoning effect of drug most strongly is shown at air temperature 18 ° above. Apply a splinter with the cotton wool which is reeled up on its end or the rags moistened by chloropicrin to a zatravlivaniye of holes of rodents. For processing of holes of small rodents it is necessary to enter into everyone apprx. 2 ml of drug, into holes of gophers, rats, etc. — apprx. 10 ml. For deratization of rooms spend 15 — 25 ml of drug for 1 m 3 (50 ml of chloropicrin on 1 m 3 for not enough pressurized rooms), for aeration of vessels 20 — 25 ml/m 3 . Drug is dangerous to the person.

In some cases separate chemical drugs are used as frightening off and by that the protecting rooms from penetration of rodents, and materials or plants from damage by rodents. Here belong zinc salt dimethyldithiocarbamic to - you are (TsIMAT), albikhtol, shale oil, etc.

Zinc salt of dimethyldithiocarbamic acid (TsIMAT) — the ochroleucous thinly ground powder, water-insoluble. Affects annoyingly mucous membranes. It is applied to protection of a container, fruit-trees, houses against rodents. For this purpose to a backlog to internal materials (gypsum, plaster, clay) add drug and carefully with them mix. Prepare also aqueous slurry of TsIMAT, a cut grease the surface which is subject to protection. In fight against penetration of rodents into kamyshitovy and other easy constructions of a wall of constructions propylivat powder TsIMAT by means of piston opylivatel. TsIMAT can cause irritation of mucous membranes of a mouth and nose of the person.

Albikhtol and shale oil are recommended for protection of a rubber and polyvinyl chloride covering of wires.

Technology of preparation of the poisoned baits. As a food basis use a grain crumb, abruptly cooked porridges, flour with addition of icing sugar, grain, etc. Products shall be high-quality, without mold, signs of rotting, etc.

Applied ratitsid in necessary concentration carefully mix with a food basis; for improvement of eating (except flour) add to a bait vegetable oil (2 — 3%), sometimes mincemeat, fish. In certain cases use fried onions.

The grain bait (wheat, oats, corn) is soaked in water solution of one of drugs (if they are rastvorima) during 24 hours, and then dried up on air. During the use of insoluble drugs grain is enveloped at first vegetable oil, and then add drug and all again carefully mix.

To fight against rats in coal mines, systems of the sewerage and other objects with high humidity where the usual bait very quickly grows mouldy, apply the waxed briquettes and pastes. Briquettes prepare, mixing the melted paraffin with quantity of a food basis, approximately equal on weight (a sukharny crumb, grain, grain etc.), add necessary amount of poison there and spread hot mix on a baking sheet, distributing it a layer up to 2 cm thick. The semi-stiffened weight is knifed acute on small squares of the necessary size and after full hardening easily broken on separate briquettes. In mines and sewer system briquettes weight apprx. 100 g suspend on a wire or display in habitals of rats. During the processing of personal plots small briquettes weight apprx. 20 g display under shelters, in the bases of bushes and trees. The bait in such form remains for a long time. Pastes prepare, mixing technical vaseline, vegetable oil and ratitsid. The ratio of separate components is defined by practical consideration, trying to obtain that the paste applied on a fanerka did not flow down from it in vertical position. In practice of deratization implement ratitsida in aerosol package — the drug «Penolatsin» giving at its release from a cylinder resistant dense foam. Cork with this foam holes of rodents; use it and for preparation of the poisoned baits, mixing with a food basis. Replacement of working mix of some ratitsid is perspective (difenatsin, etc.) their oil solutions. It saves such inactive fillers as starch, and cuts hauling charges on transportation of drugs.

Precautionary measures

All chemical D. shall be stored by page in the specially allotted dry cool room, under the lock. Only the persons who had special training are allowed to work with them. The exception is made by the drugs allowed to sale to the population. On all tanks containing drugs or a bait there has to be an accurate text «Poison!». At production of baits and during the dusting by them of holes and tracks of rodents it is necessary to work with powdery poisons in a dressing gown and rubber gloves; Nov and a mouth to protect wadded gauze bandages or respirators. Mixing of a food basis with poison is carried out indoors with artificial ventilation or in an exhaust case. In operating time with poisons and the poisoned baits it is strictly forbidden to drink, smoke and eat food. Upon termination of work of a hand wash with soap, rinse a mouth. At gas processing of work are conducted in gas masks. Gas is produced from cylinders, since distant rooms and gradually moving to an exit. Responsible for aeration watches that all disinfectors left the building. Before carrying out aeration by the drugs containing hydrocianic to - that, rooms shall be carefully prepared. The foodstuff which is well occluding hydrocianic to - that shall be removed from them. It is necessary to remove also clothes, upholstered furniture, mirrors, photographic materials.

Because many ratitsida are poisonous for people, their use in nurseries is forbidden (irrespective of a form of use) and to lay down. institutions, and also in work rooms of the food enterprises.

Biological means

Biological means — the bacterial cultures from group of salmonellas (e.g., Merezhkovsky's cultures, Isachenko, bacterial cultures, a strain 5170, etc.) causing death of rodents and sometimes leading to development of an epizooty in their populations. Bacterial cultures are unsafe for people (especially for children and patients) and domestic animals in this connection their use is limited, and in livestock farms is admissible only under observation of the veterinarian. In the USSR from 30th years are practically not used.

To biol, to means also natural enemies of rodents — birds of prey, cats, dogs belong. In some countries tried to use the Japanese caress and a mongoose. However their use was not widely adopted and had no serious practical value.

See also Deratization .

Bibliography: Bentley E. The review of the ratitsidov-anticoagulants applied now Bulletin WHO, t. 47, No. 3, page 277, 1973; In and sh to about in V. I. Disinfection, disinsection and deratization, M., 1956; In and sh to about in V. I., etc. Fight against rodents in the cities and settlements of rural areas, M., 1974, bibliogr.; The multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of H. N. Zhukova-Ve-rezhnikova, t. 5, page 502, etc., M., 1965; Polyakov I. Ya. Harmful rodents and fight against them, L., 1968.

I. S. Turov.