DENTAL EQUIPMENT — set of technical devices, devices, devices, devices and accessories to equipment of dental offices and dental laboratories. Page of t. share with dental tools (see). S.'s development by t. began with the invention of a foot drill Morrison (W. N. Morrison, 1870). In the USSR electric drills (see. Bormashina ) and dental chairs (see. Dental chair ) began to produce in 1924; later (at the beginning of the 40th) began to release dental installations (see) like ZU-1, then the US-30 type. By means of S. of t. carry out numerous to lay down. manipulations, produce dentures. The domestic medical industry by 1983 issued St. 700 names C. of t. and dental tools. Besides, in stomatology surgical, otorhinolaryngological, ophthalmologic, radiological, physiotherapeutic and other medical equipment is widely used.
Page of t. intends for therapeutic stomatology, surgical stomatology and dentoprosthetic works.
The equipment for therapeutic stomatology is presented by a number of medical and diagnostic devices.
Dental amalgamosmesitel with a short-time switch of AS-01 (fig. 1) — the desktop vibration electric device for preparation of silver amalgam during the sealing of teeth. In the vibrator the polyethylene capsule is fixed, in to-ruyu in advance by means of bottle dispensers enter necessary amounts of mercury and sawdust of silver alloy. It is necessary to work with an amalgamosmesitel in an exhaust case in the certain room.
The vacuum device of V. I. Kulazhenko of ALP-02 (fig. 2) is intended for treatment of periodontosis. It is carried out by evacuating in a sterile glass tip, to-ry press to a mucous membrane of an alveolar shoot in a fang and by means of the vacuum pump depression of air in it is brought to 40 mm of mercury. Through a tip it is visible how the mucous membrane is pulled in in a tip, on its surface dot hemorrhages develop, to-rye then merge. At the same time weak, «sick» capillaries collapse; instead of them are soon formed new that promotes improvement of microblood circulation around a painful tooth. Hemorrhages resolve in 3 — 4 days then according to indications the procedure repeats. The device works from the alternating current main with voltage of 220 V.
Dental diathermocoagulator of DKS-2M (fig. 3) — the generator of high-frequency electromagnetic oscillations. It is intended for a stop of bleeding from a pulp, its coagulation, a burning out of granulyatsionny fabric and a hypertrophied mucous membrane of a mouth, a gingiva, etc. Diathermocoagulation is carried out by electrodes of various form, to-rye heat up to f 60 — 120 ° depending on the power and exposure. The device works from the alternating current main of 127 and 220 century.
Dental physiotherapeutic installation on gas helium - the neon laser (fig. 4) is intended for treatment stomatol. diseases. Installation has the gas helium-the neon laser (HNL), the measuring instrument of power, a short-time switch. Radiation by means of the mirror light guide is brought to various sites in an oral cavity. In practice also the device for laser reflexotherapy on GNL is implemented.
Tooth electroanaesthetic ELOZ-l (fig. 5) is intended for painless processing of carious tooth. Consists of a passive (negative) electrode in the form of a clip of the ear of the patient fixed on a lobe, and active (positive), attached to a tip of a drill. For anesthesia current with a force up to 50 mk is used. Previously determine limit of sensibility of a pulp of the tooth which is subject to treatment by the same device. At preparation of tooth on boron current by force below limit of sensibility moves. Anesthesia comes as soon as boron is entered into a carious pulp cavity i.e. when the chain becomes isolated. For strengthening of anesthesia the carious cavity is irrigated by 2% with solution of novocaine. The device works from the dry battery of 9 in (Krone type).
Elektroodontometr of EOM-3 (fig. 6) — the small-size desktop device for definition of a threshold of electroexcitability of pain receptors of tooth for the purpose of specification of a condition of a pulp or perpapikalny fabrics is normal also at patol. states; works from the alternating current main of 127 and 220 century. The patient holds a passive electrode in hand, and active the doctor investigates tooth, regulating current from 0 to 50 mk and from 0 to 200 mk. At pain reaction of the patient the doctor registers current on the microampermeter, defining a threshold of electric excitability of pain reaction.
Except the specified devices, in therapeutic stomatology use: the device for removal of a dental calculus by means of ultrasound Ultrasty, the USP-1M type, to-ry is used also to removal of the hanging edges of seals; the device for galvanization of an oral cavity of GR-2 — at diseases of bodies of an oral cavity and teeth; the device for a flyuktuarization of ASB-2-1 intended for treatment of periodontosis, performing anesthesia at neuralgia, acute pulpitises and alveoluses of birds for an electrophoresis of pharmaceuticals; the hydromassage dental device according to P. E. To Smolin; the nitric dental cryosprayer (To the EXPERT) for treatment of the inflamed pulp of tooth, ulcer diseases of a mucous membrane of a mouth and integuments of the person of method of cryoinfluence of an open stream of liquid nitrogen; a dental oteasyvatel of OS-1 for suction of aerosols and the infected dust which is formed during the dentoprosthetic works, etc.
The equipment for surgical stomatology is presented by a number of tires and devices for fixing of fragments of bones of a jaw and a facial skeleton.
The device for extraoral reposition, fixing of fragments of the lower and upper jaws (according to Ya. M. Zbarzhu) with powerful locks and cores (fig. 7) allows to fix reliably fragments of a top and bottom jaw, especially at changes of a mandible with defect of a bone.
Kompressionno - the distraktsionny device for treatment of fractures of bones of a facial skull of KDNP allows to carry out a compression, fixing, distraction of any fractures of bones of a skull; it can be applied along with other devices and tires (Rudko's device, the device of Zbarzha, etc.). For a reliable support special screws serve, to-rye through cuts in skin are screwed in in the unimpaired bone of a skull to spongy substance, providing stability of all design and fixing of fragments of bones of a facial skull.
The device for extraoral fixing of fragments of a mandible (according to V. F. Rudko) consists of hooks with screw clamps, hinges (the fixing couplings) and steel connecting cores of a pla of arches. Parts of the device in assembled form strongly hold each other, reliably enshrining fragments of a jaw in the necessary provision (fig. 8).
The tire sling and hat for a temporary immobilization of fractures of jaws, the rigid mental tire sling (according to D. A. Entin) with cuts for fastening by its rubber rings to a head basic hat (according to Ya. M. Zbarzhu) provide fixing of fragments of jaws for the period of transportation of the rendering the specialized surgical help (fig. 9) which was injured to the place.
In surgical stomatology very difficult technical devices are successfully used: electrosurgical dental ES-10 device; high-frequency electrosurgical ES-30 dental apparatus; a surgical dental drill of the BPHS-1 type (with two pneumoengines); laser Scalpel-1 surgical machine; laser surgical and LGM-2 therapeutic machine, etc.
In surgical and therapeutic stomatology also needleless dental injektor of BI-8 is used. The local anesthesia at an exodontia, treatment of caries, a pulpitis, periodontitis, periodontosis is reached by introduction under pressure of 50 — 100 kgfs/cm2 of anesthetic a thin stream (to dia. 0,1 mm), edges breaks a mucous membrane of an oral cavity and, losing energy, lingers on the set depth in fabrics. Injektor is very economic since the consumption of anesthetic at its use is 4 — 5 times less, than during the work with the syringe (see. Injektor needleless ).
The equipment for dentoprosthetic works (see. Dentures ) it is presented by devices and devices for dentoprosthetic laboratories (see. Dentoprosthetic laboratory).
The device for extension of tooth crowns of ZG-1 (fig. 10), the device «Samson», known under the name, is intended for extension of sleeves from metal preparations and stamping from them tooth crowns. By means of top and bottom openings in beds and 30 punches corresponding to them it is possible to produce (to extend) crowns with a diameter from 4,5 to 16 mm (30 sizes), from 0,25 to 0,3 mm thick. Preparations for crowns are disks to dia. 20, 22 and 24 mm from gold, platinum or stainless steel. Extension of crowns to the necessary size is made consistently, since the first punch, without admissions.
The dental impregnating bath of VPZ-2 (fig. 11) enters a complex of devices and devices for precision molding of dentures on a cobalt basis. It is intended for impregnation of fire-resistant models and the subsequent casting of tselnolity designs of dentures. The 400 installation in - and eats voltage of 220 V from the alternating current main.
The electromagnetic vibrator for dentoprosthetic works of VEM-01 (fig. 12) is intended for consolidation of forming mixes at production of plaster models, casting molds of metal designs of prostheses, press forms for production of dentures and other purposes. The vibrator with power no more than 180 in - and is powered from the alternating current main voltage of 220 V, the frequency of fluctuation of its table to 100 Hz. For the same purposes use a vacuum dental vibrotable.
Zolotopyleulovitel of ZPU (fig. 13) for collecting particles and dust of precious metals during the grinding and polishing of dentures from gold and platinum. Installation consists of the grinder (an electric motor, grinding disks or polishing brushes and felt wheels are got on an axis to-rogo) and the sucking-away fan with the deposition chamber of particles and dust. Formed during the processing of dentures dust and particles of metals drag on the fan in the camera and are besieged on the filter of the collection. The 300 installation in - and works from the alternating current main with voltage of 220 V.
High-frequency installation for casting of dentures of VChI — 9 — 10/C44 (fig. 14) is intended for melting and centrifugal casting of details of dentures from high-melting temperature alloys.
It consists of the generator and two rotating furnaces working in turn induction. After fusion of metal the furnace is given to rotation, at the same time under the influence of centrifugal force molten metal is filled in in a form (molding). High-frequency melting and a molding technique of metal provide high quality of castings. Capacity of a crucible is 180 g (on steel); time of melting became 50 sec.; the working tension of three-phase current 220 pl 380 in, frequency its 440 kHz, power during melting of 17 kVA.
In dental laboratories also other devices find broad application: the device for point electric welding of bridge-like and byugelny prostheses, the dental soldering portable device APP, dental drills of BEO-2 and BETSG-03, the dental clearing peskometny KOP-2 camera, the compressor for a pneumodrill of PK-1, automatic dental PS-12 polymerization reactor, the dental ShM-1 grinder, the dental SNVI electric furnace — 0,8•0,5/11-M1 for agglomeration of porcelain and other equipment for metal ceramics and porcelain.
The Guide to therapeutic stomatology, under the editorship of A. I. Evdokimov, M., 1967;
The Guide to surgical stomatology, under the editorship of A. I. Evdokimov, M., 1972.
G. M. Ivashchenko.