DENMARK, Kingdom of Denmark — the state in the northwest of Europe, occupies the most part of the peninsula Jutland and group of nearby islands (Zealand, Fyn, Lolland, Falster, etc.), and also the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. Denmark possesses the Faroe Islands using internal autonomy and the island of Greenland. The climate is moderate, sea with soft unstable winter, in the cool summer. Territory of 43 thousand km 2 , the population of St. 5,1 million people (1976), 98% of the population — Danes. 80% of the population live in the cities. The capital — Copenhagen (without suburbs — 562,4 thousand people; 1975).
Vital rates are given in the table. The natural movement of the population of Denmark on 1000 inhabitants
The island of Greenland has the area apprx. 2,2 million km 2 with the population of St. 49 thousand zhit. The area of the Faroe Islands is 1,4 thousand km 2 with the population of 40 thousand inhabitants.
— the constitutional monarchy. The monarch carries out legislature together with unicameral parliament. Executive power is carried out also by the monarch and from his name the government.
— the industrial and agrarian country with a high level of development of the monopolistic capital. Strong positions belong to the foreign capital. The share of the industry in the national income makes more than 40%. Advanced agriculture takes an important place in national economy. By the sizes of a gross product per capita (3,5 thousand dollars in 1970) D. borrows 5 — the 6th place among the capitalist countries.
Average life expectancy made at men 70, women have 76 years (1971 — 1972). The nature of pathology of the population specific to economically developed countries.
Cardiovascular diseases, malignant new growths, vascular defeats of c were the main reasons for death (1972). N of page, accidents, emphysema of lungs and bronchial asthma. A serious social and medical problem is drug addiction and alcoholism.
The national health service is included into the Ministry of Internal Affairs, carries out overseeing by the state of health of the population, control of compliance with laws, concerning health care, develops suggestions for improvement of system to lay down. - professional, the help, controls activity of hospitals, drugstores and other healthcare institutions.
The head of National health service is the CEO. The service has a number of special departments: medikogigiyenicheskiya, pharmacy, nurse business, hygiene of food, bureau of medical statistics, secretariat, and also consultants for various industries of medicine. The CEO heads Medical council of national health service — the supreme advisory body into which executives of service enter. Responsibility for the organization to lay down. - the prof. of the help to the population in districts, the cities and districts generally lies on local self-government institutions under which authority most hospitals and other health services is. District, city and regional dignity. doctors perform the current management on providing a dignity. - a gigabyte. and to lay down. - professional, actions. The defining role in the organization of fight against a number of diseases belongs to public organizations (about-va fight against cancer, tuberculosis, rheumatism, mental diseases, poliomyelitis).
The ground mass of hospitals belongs to the state and local self-government institutions. Total quantity of hospitals apprx. 300, from them: the general profile — 124, psychiatric — 13, for hron, patients — 2 (1972—1973); the medical centers — 84, tubercular — 37, specialized stationary institutions — 5 (1970). The bed fund in 1971 — 1972 made 42 189 beds (i.e. 8,4 beds for 1000 of the population).
The system of stationary service provides existence in each district of the central hospital giving the qualified help, less powerful hospitals, and also hospitals cottages in small settlements. The extra hospital help to the population appears private medical practitioners of the general practice and specialists in own offices.
In 1973 in the country there were 10 775 doctors, i.e. 21,2 doctors on 10 thousand inhabitants.
In D. there is a service of obstetric care, edges are provided and carries out the complex of actions for control over pregnant women including 6 — 7 planned surveys. In total in the country individually in the offices 400 midwifes work. In 1972 the decision on creation of the obstetric centers is made, each of which will service on average 75 thousand people.
In the country the special service of the patronage help to children functions. Patronage workers are the sisters who got a three years' education, practical and theoretical preparation and a training. More than 600 specialists are employed in this service. They exercise control of physical. and mental development, participate in permission of social problems and questions of education of the child. Besides, the service of a sisterly domiciliary care functions. All three services contain at the expense of districts and municipalities.
The largest scientific physicians of D. — the therapist B. Bang, surgeons S. Marsen and Fenger (Page E. Fenger), the histologist A. Hannover, the founder of the Danish school of a comparative anatomy I. Boas, Nobel Prize laureates — the researcher in the field of oncology I. Fibiger and X. I will give, the opened phthiocol. Medical researches in D. are conducted at medical schools and large-tsakh the countries. Large scientific center is State the in-t of vaccines and serums where developments in the field of microbiology, virology, epidemiology, endocrinology, hematology are conducted. The leading scientific center in the field of pharmacy is Ying t Naelsa Stingsenga.
In D. there is a system of social insurance on medical aid and in connection with disability. All population of the country is divided into groups «A» and «B». The first includes 82% of the population — representatives of families with revenue less than 50 Ltd companies of kroner. The second group (15%) — the population with higher income. There is also a G group (3% of the population) which is not participating in insurance because of poverty. The population of group «A» has the right for service at the general practitioner and in his direction at the specialist, and also hospital treatment, expenses on a number of medicines are refunded to them. The group «B» has broader rights in a question of the choice of doctors, however expenses on medical aid are compensated to them to a lesser extent. Expenses on service of representatives of the G group are refunded by municipality. Fixed assets of social insurance are contributions of the population and businessmen.
Bibliography: Backer P. and. lake of Medical education in Denmark, Dan. med. Bull., v. 19, p. 187, 1972; J u u 1 S. Primary health services in Denmark 1972, ibid., p. 181; T 0 r n i n g J. The paramedical courses in Denmark, ibid., p. 194.
O. A. Alexandrov.