From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DEMYELINATING DISEASES (Latin the de-prefix extraction, destruction + myelinations) — diseases of a nervous system which cornerstone defeat of white matter of a head and spinal cord, death of a myelin cover is (demyelination). Axial cylinders at these diseases often remain kept; partial disintegration of axial cylinders happens at long disease.

To D. z. belong: multiple sclerosis (see), scattered encephalomyelitis (see); the progressing leukoencephalites (see. Panencephalitis ) — periaksialny encephalitis of Shilder, subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis of Van-Bogart; progressing leukodystrophy (see) — Pelitseus's disease — Mertsbakhera, Krabbe's disease, Gallervorden's disease — Shpattsa and other forms of a leukodystrophy. It is most widespread from these diseases multiple sclerosis, frequency to-rogo in various regions of the USSR fluctuates within 1,3 — 6,7 on 10 000 inhabitants.

Among D. z. it is reasonable to distinguish infectious and allergic and hereditary forms.

According to many authors, multiple sclerosis and primary disseminated encephalomyelitis have the infectious and allergic nature. Morfol, a basis of multiple sclerosis — disintegration of a myelin and formation of sclerous plaques. At disseminated encephalomyelitis quickly there are centers of a full necrosis of a myelin, the died nervous tissue is replaced with a connective tissue hem. Consider that the oligodendrogliya, for the second time — a myelin cover initially suffers.

Questions of an etiology and a pathogeny of the progressing leukoencephalites are finally not solved. Many researchers consider that have a certain value exogenous (at infectious viral diseases) and endogenous (at hereditary and family dystrophies) factors. There is an assumption that the subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis is caused by a virus of measles, is long developing in cells of a brain. At a leukodystrophy in myelin covers there is genetically determined disturbance of lipidic exchange.

Bibliography: Demyelinating diseases of a nervous system in an experiment and clinic, under the editorship of D. A. Markov, Minsk, 1970; Leonovich A. L. The progressing leukoencephalites, Minsk, 1970, bibliogr.; Margulies M. S., etc. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, M., 1959, bibliogr.; A. G. sirs and 3inchenko A. P. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and encephalomyelitis, L., 1970, bibliogr.; With and in e of the Tax Code about S. N. Multiple sclerosis and diffusion periaksialny encephalitis, Kiev, 1966, bibliogr.; C at to e r M. B. Infectious diseases of a nervous system at children, M., 1963; P e t t e E. u. P e t-t e H. Virologische Aspekte bei der Multip-len Sklerose, Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk., Bd 185, S. 295, 1963; P o s e r C. M. Leukodystrophy and the concept of dysmyelination, Arch. Neurol. (Chic.), v. 4, p. 323, 1961.

O. A. Hondkarian.