DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS, or statistics of the population — cumstat about the number, density, structure of the population and its movement. Studying specific quantitative characteristics of the population, D. of page at the same time is method demography (see), delivering the actual material for its generalizations. These D. of page about the number, age and sex structure, accommodation of the population and others are important for the organization of medical aid to the population and definitions of long-term plans of development of health care. The rates of mortality received by D. page (the general, on age and sex groups and on causes of death and a row other) are used for evaluation of the work of bodies of health care.
Are the main sources of data on the population population censuses (see), the current registration of births, death, marriages, stains and migrations (arrival on a residence and leaving). Population censuses supply with the information on number, placement and structure of the population.
The main issue for the correct carrying out a census consists in determination of the considered category of the population. Rules which would prevent the admission or the double account shall be established. Censuses consider or resident population (the persons who are usually living in this place), or cash (being there in a moment of rupture of a census). The difference meanwhile and to others is formed from «temporarily absent» in the permanent address and «temporarily living».
In the last Soviet censuses both categories of the population were considered. It provided not only mutual control of data on a national scale, but also use of these data in the solution of practical tasks on places. The Soviet censuses define resident population as set of the faces tied with this place, permanent job (the or supporters), study (not less certain duration), in general — not less than for 6 months which left the former residence.
The structure of the population is established also on the basis of data of a census. As a part of the program of a census distinguish the following groups of questions: 1) actually demographic — a sex, age, a family state, it is frequent — the birthplace, and in some cases additional data — number of the born children, date of marriage and t. and.;
2) nationality, nationality, language (colloquial or native);
3) cultural and educational — literacy, education, study;
4) economic — social accessory, sources of a subsistence, occupation. Data on vozrastnopolovy structure since these parameters characterize features of demographic processes, economic activity of the population etc. have special value. Knowledge of age and sex structure is important also for planning of medical service of the population as a number of its types has the object separate age and sex groups (children, old men, women).
Includes marriages, stains, the births and death in the concept «natural movement of the population» D. of page. Registration of events of the natural movement of the population is manufactured in the USSR: in the cities special departments of civil registration (registry office), in rural areas village councils. In registration of death
the medical death certified by the doctor is essential to lay down. institutions, around service to-rogo there came death. In the act of death, except date of death, data on the dead, and also a cause of death register (on the basis of the medical certificate); in the act of the birth, except a sex of the child and date of his birth — data on parents; in acts of marriage and of a divorce — a sequence of data about marrying or terminating it. These records allow to find out structure of the corresponding types of the movement of the population, and also to have special data among which data on causes of death are essential.
Under mechanical motion, or migration, the population understand movements of people. Distinguish the migration of resident population connected with change of the residence; migration of the cash population, i.e. movement for time (in a business trip, on rest, treatment, on a visit, etc.); external migration — movement from one states in others; internal migration — within one state; pendular migration (the regular movements from the dwelling to the place of work or study which are usually made in city boundaries or the city and its vicinities).
Along with general censuses and obligatory registration of the movement of the population an important source in studying of demographic processes special inspections — selective are (see. Sampling method ) and monographic. They are undertaken when there is no opportunity to use data of the current continuous registration, or for obtaining special data. The anamnestic inspections of the population applied in days of the Soviet power are that. Advantage of such inspections is that in them the population given about structure and its movement are directly connected with each other. They allow to obtain in the historical sequence data on events in life of people and families for a big span. So, it is possible to receive data on all births at the woman, destiny of each her child, and also still births, abortions, abortions etc.
Absolute data, how many relative indicators characterizing structure of the population, intensity of processes of its movement etc. are not so important for the characteristic of the population and its movement. Among these relative sizes distinguish extensive and intensive.
Extensive indicators (sizes), or structure factor, distributions, indicate the relation of a part to whole, a share of a part in general. These indicators give an idea of quantitative distribution of compound (structural) parts in any uniform set. In particular, they characterize structure of the population, the list of the dead, etc. Their characteristic feature is that the specific weight of groups can change under the influence of the processes relating to other groups. E.g., if mortality at advanced ages decreased, then specific weight in structure of the population elderly and old men and consequently, there will be a reduction of specific weight in the population of children with other things being equal will increase. The percentage ratio of various causes of death in the general data on mortality is a classical example of extensive sizes (on all age or persons of a certain age etc.).
Intensive indicators (sizes), or indicators of frequency, prevalence, indicate degree of frequency of the studied phenomena in the environment. In D. on «Wednesday» population in general, and also its separate groups is accepted by page (on age, sex, a profession, etc.).
Intensive indicators can be applied to comparison of a number of various sets on degree of frequency of this or that phenomenon (e.g., to comparison of levels of birth rate in the different countries, in different areas or to comparison of death rates in different age groups etc.); for identification in dynamics of changes of degree of frequency of the phenomena in observed set (e.g., shifts in prevalence of infectious incidence of the population of any area in five years, etc.). Example of intensive indicators is the rate of mortality from this reason measured by the relation of number of cases of death from it to population — all or on corresponding vozrastnopolovy groups.
Directly received results of a population census represent absolute numbers of the population and its groups on different combinations of signs countrywide and by its parts, usually with allocation of urban and country people. From them receive a huge number of the relative indicators characterizing structure of the population, and in comparison to the previous census — the general growth rates of the population or its groups.
The main vital rates are:
1. Coefficient birth rate (see):
[number been born live in a year x 1000] / [annual average population].
2. Coefficient mortality (see):
[number of the dead in a year x 1000] / [annual average population].
3. Coefficient of a natural increase — a difference of birth-rate coefficients and mortality.
4. The Brachnost — the attitude of annual number of marriages towards the average population taken for one thousand.
5. Coefficient of stains — the attitude of annual number of stains towards the average population taken for one thousand.
6. The general fertility, or fertility, is characterized by coefficient of the general fertility:
[number been born in a year x 1000] / [the average number of women at the age of 15 — 44 years].
7. Povozrastny fertility, or fertility:
[number of births at women of the corresponding age x 1000] / [number of women of this age group].
8. Gross - coefficient of generation — the sum of the povozrastny yearly indicators of fertility increased by a share of girls among newborns (for the entire period of fertility).
9. Child («infantile») mortality — the relation of number of the died babies till 1 year to respectively the calculated number been born live, taken for one thousand (see. Child mortality ).
10. Povozrastny mortality — the relation of number of the died persons of this age (and a floor) to their average number taken for one thousand.
11. Indicators of tables of mortality and life expectancy among which main — the average duration of the forthcoming life — number of years, a cut on average the generation should live been born if throughout their life there are appropriate levels of povozrastny mortality.
12. Mortality from separate causes of death — the relation of number of the dead from the specific reason to the average population taken for one thousand.
13. Net - coefficient of generation — the sum of the yearly indicators of fertility increased by a share of girls among newborns and by probability of their survival to age of the mother by the time of childbirth (one of indicators of tables of mortality).
14. Pokrovsky's index — the relation of number of the dead who were born to number; replaces coefficient of a natural increase when population is unknown and it is impossible to estimate birth rate and mortality on 1000 inhabitants.
These D. pages have huge value for the characteristic a dignity. conditions of the population. Through indicators of birth rate and mortality — the general and for the separate reasons — D. is closely connected by page with sanitary statistics (see), social hygiene and organization of health care (see). Communication this so close that D. is frequent is stated to page together with a dignity. statistics. That the page and a dignity are more important to distinguish accurately D. statistics, leaving in the field of attention of the last statistics of health care, health of the population, incidence, and also use of demographic methods of statistics in clinic, experimental medicine, epidemiology. The statistics of causes of death is allocated as a boundary region. Of page covers also a number of questions, belonging to economy, sotsiol. to problems, ethnography, etc.
Bibliography: Kurkin P. I. Birth rate and mortality in the capitalist states of Europe, M., 1938; The Course of demography, under the editorship of A. Ya. Boyarsky, M., 1974; Merkova.M. Demographic statistics, M., 1965; Payevsky V. V. Questions of demographic and medical statistics, M., 1970, bibliogr.; The guide to social hygiene and the organization of health care, under the editorship of M. A. Vinogradov, t. 1, M., 1974.
A. Ya. Boyarsky.