From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DEFECTOLOGY (Latin defectus a shortcoming + grech, logos the doctrine) — the science studying the general patterns of development of children with various forms of anomalies (disfigurations and disturbances of mentality) and developing methods of their training and education. In system of mass education and training possibilities of optimum development of such children therefore creation of special conditions and means of medical and pedagogical influence is necessary cannot be provided.

A number of special sections of pedagogics enters D.: the surdopedagogika studying patterns of education and training of children with shortcomings of hearing (see. Surdomutism, training and education of deaf-mutes ); tiflopedagogics dealing with issues of training and education of children with visual impairments (see. Blindness ); the oligophrenopedagogy considering problems of education and training of mentally retarded children (see. Oligophrenias ); logopedics (see), dealing with issues of studying and correction of shortcomings of the speech. Problems of training and education of children with disturbances of a musculoskeletal system, children with difficult defects (a combination of a blindness and deafness or mental retardation and deafness, etc.), and also children with slight deviations in development also belong to D. Besides, D. is engaged in studying of psychology of the children having the listed defects and development special surdoterapevtichesky equipment (see) and tiflotekhnik (see) for training and simplification of work and life of persons with defects of hearing and sight.

Historically before other sections began to develop in D. surdopedagogika (see). The first institute for deaf-mutes (establishment of school type) was created in 1770 in France (in Paris), in 1806 in Russia (in Pavlovsk). Training of deafs was conducted earlier: the ital. scientist and the doctor Cardano (G. Cardano, 1501 — 1576) proved a possibility of training of deafs of the verbal speech, isp. the priest Bonet (J. P. Bonet, 1579 — 1633) made the first guide to their training. At the beginning of 20 century from a surdopedagogika the logopedics was allocated.

The founder of tiflopedagogics consider the fr. teacher Oi (W. Hauy, 1745 — 1822). The first institute for blind people was created by it in France (in Paris) in 1784, in Russia such institute was created in 1807 (in St. Petersburg).

A little later an oligophrenopedagogy was created. The first attempt of education and training of the mentally retarded child was undertaken by the fr. doctor Itar (M. G. Itard, 1775 — 1838). Development of the theory of an oligophrenopedagogy is begun by the fr. doctor and the psychologist Segen (E. Seguin, 1812 — 1880). School training of deeply backward children is for the first time organized in France in 1841, in Russia — in 1908 (in Moscow).

In pre-revolutionary Russia not numerous institutions for children with various forms of anomalies were generally private and charitable and covered only a small part of persons in need. In the organization of training of such children an active role was played by the famous doctors — G. I. Rossolimo, S. S. Preobrazhensky (1861 — 1927), V. P. Kashchenko (1870 — 1943), etc.

The Soviet D. developed in fight against theoretical ideas of extreme limitation of opportunities of development of children against physical and intellectual defects, according to the Crimea the main objective of training and education was only adaptation of such children to elementary physical. to work. A favorable basis for D.'s development were the first acts of the Soviet state (1918, 1919), to-rymi it completely undertook care of training and education of children with various forms of anomalies. Functions of public authorities on this matter were defined, special scientific institutions and educational institutions for training of specialists speech pathologists who shall provide training of children on the basis of the theory of communistic education are created.

The foundation was laid for serious theoretical work on studying of the general patterns of development of children with different types of defects by the Soviet psychologist L. S. Vygotsky who formulated the provision on emergence in process of the child with any form of anomaly of the secondary deviations only indirectly connected with primary defect (organic lesion of c. N of page, defect of hearing or sight). So, e.g., primary damage to hearing is caused by disturbances or even a full underdevelopment of the speech. He noted as the general pattern of mental development of children with anomalies of difficulty of communication and a deviation in development of the personality. Further some more the general patterns of mental development of such children, napr, reduction in the rate of reception and processing of information, etc. were revealed.

Big achievement of D. as sciences was development of a comprehensive approach to studying of development of children with various forms of anomalies — with participation of teachers, doctors, physiologists, psychologists and other specialists. On the basis of data Kliniko-fiziol. and psikhol, studying of development of such children develop terms, content and methods of training and education of children with different types of anomalies.

By it is closely connected with a number of sections of medical science — neuropathology, psychiatry, a pathophysiology, medical genetics, a patopsikhologiya, etc. It puts forward before them such urgent problems as studying of an etiology and pathogeny of poorly expressed deviations in development of children, development of their classification, to lay down. actions in the course of educational and correctional and educational work with the children having various physical and intellectual defects, epidemiol, studying of anomalies of development, etc.

The lead scientific institution in the country dealing with issues of defectology is the scientific research institute of defectology of Academy of pedagogical sciences of the USSR. Researches in this area are conducted also in nauchnoissledovatelsky in-ta of pedagogics and psychology of federal republics, at departments defektol. f-tov pedagogical in-t, in some other scientific institutions. The defektologichesky section Pedagogical about-va the USSR works.

Each 3 — 4 years in the USSR scientific meetings on questions D. with participation of speech pathologists of the socialist countries are held. Specialists speech pathologists take part in the international congresses on training of deafs, on logopedics, on studying of mental retardation, etc.

Since 1928 in the USSR the following periodicals were published: Questions of Defectology (1928 — 1931) magazine, periodic collections «Teaching and Educational Work at Special Schools (Schools for Deaf-and-dumb, Blind Children and Auxiliary Schools)» (1940 — 1957), «Special school» (1958 — 1968); since 1969 the Defektologiya magazine is issued. Abroad there are more than hundred scientific and scientific and practical magazines, generally specialized on the industries. The most known of them: «Die Sonderschule» (GDR), «Annual review for the deaf», «The Volta review», «American journal of mental deficiency», «Mental retardation abstracts», «Exceptional children», «Journal of Learning Disabilities» (USA), «Journal of mental deficiency research» (England).

Bibliography: Vlasova T. A. and Pevzner M. S. About children with deviations in development, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Vygotsky L. S. Chosen psychological researches, M., 1956, bibliogr.; The Defektologichesky dictionary, under the editorship of A. I. Dyachkov, M., 1970; Defectology in works of institute (the index of literature), under the editorship of A. G. Orlov, M., 1971; Bases of training and education of abnormal children, under the editorship of A. I. Dyachkov, etc., M., 1965, bibliogr.; H e we t t F. M. a. F o r-n e s s S. R. Education of exceptional learners, Boston, 1974; M about about of P. Heilpada-gogische Psychologie, Bern — Stuttgart, 1967; The present situation and trends of research in the field of special education, Unesco, P., 1973.

V. I. Lubovsky.