DECOMPENSATION (Latin the de-prefix extraction, destruction + compensare to counterbalance, compensate) — insufficiency or failure of mechanisms of recovery of functional disturbances and structural defects of an organism.
Reasons of a decompensation are various. It can arise during the progressing of a disease or patol, process, in connection with physical. an overstrain or overfatigue, as a result of impact on an organism of thermal factors (cooling, overheating), an injury or to be a consequence of the accompanying disease (especially infectious). The emotional stress, starvation expressed alcoholic and other intoxications, disturbance of work and rest can be the reasons of.
Origins Can be connected with incomplete recovery (see) — in an organism there is a so-called place of the smallest resistance (see Locus minoris resistentiae); the sparing living conditions provide almost healthy condition of the person, and adverse situations can cause D.'s phenomena, and sometimes and a palindromia. E.g., the exacerbation of radiculitis arises during the overcooling, some dermatosis (eczema, neurodermatitis) under stressful conditions, etc.
In an experiment value of trace reactions in c. to N of page in origins of D. it is shown by A. D. Speransky in a so-called phenomenon of «the second blow»; after full a wedge, recovery traumatizing a nervous system can lead to emergence of a row a wedge, symptoms of an experimental disease again (e.g., tetanic intoxication).
In a wedge, many cases of D. are known to practice; the most striking example is the decompensation of blood circulation, development of a congestive hyperemia, emergence of hypostases and a hypoxia of fabrics at heart diseases. Development of the phenomena of D. depends, on the one hand, on weight patol, process or intensity of the adverse effect causing disturbance compensatory processes (see), with another — from degree of reliability of compensatory reactions, from so-called margin of safety of an organism.
The most important role in D.'s prevention is played by the general adaptive reactions (see), developed in the course of evolution at the level of a complete organism and carried out first of all by means of neuroendocrinal mechanisms.
At early children's age adaptive mechanisms are still insufficiently created, and at advanced and especially senile age reserve forces of an organism are weakened therefore the age factor also has essential value.
A. M. Chernukh.