From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DEAFMUTISM WITH BLINDNESS — combination of a total blindness to deafness and dumbness.

The page can be inborn and acquired. Inborn S. meets much less often than acquired; it arises as a result of impact of various harmful factors on an organism of the developing fruit, including viral infections, Rh incompatibility, intoxications, injuries, etc. The acquired S. most often results inf. diseases (scarlet fever, measles, etc.), among to-rykh the essential place epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis borrows. Also tumors and injuries of a brain can be the cause of the acquired S.

The page comes when loss of sight makes impossible subject orientation, and the hearing loss at early children's age deprives of the child of an opportunity to perceive informal conversation. If deep defeat of organs of sight and hearing occurred at that age when speech (see) it was already created, at the child during nek-ry time visual representations about a number of specific objects and the oral speech inherent to the normal child of the same age remain. However without special pedagogical influence these uslovnoreflektorny bonds gradually die away, the child does not develop intellectually. In this regard distinguish S., at a cut of the patient cannot be guided in a subject situation and has no oral speech, and S., at a cut of the patient is not guided in new subject situations with the help of visual feelings, but the speech at it is kept.

The research and assessment of a condition of visual and acoustical analyzers at S. undertaken for identification of extent of loss of natural functions by them is conducted by the same principles, according to the same criteria and by means of the same methods, as at to a blindness (see) and to deafness (see).

For the purpose of definition of optimal conditions for training and intellectual opportunities at S. it is necessary, besides, nevrol. inspection of the child. At the same time pay attention to existence of the symptoms testimonial of defeat of c. N of page. However the conclusion about impossibility of training at S. can be drawn only after the attempt to train the child within a year did not give effect and is established that as the reason of it serves the mental retardation caused by damage of a brain.

Training of deaf, blind and mute persons was considered impossible till 40th 19 century. Trained L. Bridgmen — the pupil of doctor S. G. Howe was the first, and the first of deaf, blind and mute persons got the higher education and degree of the doctor of philosophy Keller (N. of Keller) — the pupil A. Sullivan.

In 1923 at the initiative of I. A. So-kolyansky in Kharkiv the first-ever nauchnopedagogichesky school for deaf, blind and mute persons was organized. In 1955 training of deaf, blind and mute persons was begun in scientific research institute of defectology of Academy of pedagogical sciences of the USSR, and in 1963 in Zagorsk the school clinic was open for deaf, blind and mute persons.

In the USSR the exclusive attention is paid to S.'s prevention and medical service of children of this category. Thanks to accrescence of welfare and cultural level of the population, constant improvement of system a dignity. - a gigabyte. actions and the qualified medical aid in the country the number of deaf, blind and mute persons considerably decreased. Achievements of microsurgery of an eye and ear allow many deaf, blind and mute persons to find an opportunity to be guided in a surrounding situation. In our country on a high level training of such children is organized.

Feature of training of deaf, blind and mute children consists in need to create all complex of mental processes, beginning from the most elementary forms. At the same time it is established that the complex dynamic structure of mental development of the deaf, blind and mute child is subordinated to the same age pattern, edges it is inherent to mental development of the normal child (see. Mentality ).

The main objective of initial stages of education of deaf, blind and mute children is development of free orientation in the environment, including formation of concepts about the major objects and the phenomena, development of skills of self-service and actions with objects. The most important problem of training is formation of means of communication. At the same time children at first gestures learn to understand and then dactilology, correlating this symbolics to a certain subject or its model. Control of degree of understanding of an essence of the speech is exercised in the beginning by correlation of gesture (or words in a tactile look) with a specific subject, and then the volume figure of this subject molded by the child from plasticine.

Gradually sign speech is completely replaced with dactilology (see. Surdomutism ), then children are acquainted with a relief font of Braille (see. Blindness ). In specially equipped office by means of a relief and dot font will organize group communication, at Krom children on special carriages perceive fingers of a hand a question (task) printed on the typewriter for blind people (see. Tiflotekhnika ). The corresponding answer is printed on the machine by one of pupils, and all other children perceive this information on the carriages.

On the basis of broad tactile and written communication the main objectives of training are resolved, at the same time the child seizes the functional (practical) grammar regulating laws of expression of a thought by means of language.

The huge attention is paid to development of thinking and complex education during various practical activities.

The most important problem of training is also formation at the child of oral speech and ability to perceive the words written by a flat font on his palm and phrases. By means of touch the child gets acquainted with character of an articulating of sounds on a mouth of the teacher and of the model of an oral cavity. Control of a pronunciation is exercised by the teacher, at the same time the temporary approximate pronunciation is allowed. Further use system of parallel texts, one of to-rykh the teacher gives, and the second is made by pupils.

Considering that even at the heaviest degree of deafness deaf, blind and mute children in most cases can perceive low frequencies (see. Reedikation of hearing ), speech pathologists learned to use this touch reserve in the course of formation of the speech. For this purpose use special sound-amplifying devices, the equipment transforming sounds of the speech to the corresponding vibration impulses (see. Surdoterapevtichesky equipment ). Success of process of training depends on the correct selection and on the correct setup of the equipment.

Experience of training of deaf, blind and mute persons in the Moscow university and other educational institutions demonstrates that they successfully acquire the program of higher education institution, quite well speak and make a notable contribution to science. So, O. I. Skorokhodova became the doctor of pedagogical sciences (on psychology), is the author of books «As I Perceive the World Around» (1947) and «As I perceive and I represent the world around» (1954). These books are translated into many languages of the world and represent great scientific interest for scientific various specialties.

Bibliography: Apraushev A. V. Labor education of deaf, blind and mute children, M., 1979; Vasina G. V. Subject lessons in training of deaf, blind and mute children, Special school, century 3, page 100, 1968; M and p e e-in and R. A. Education and training of deaf, blind and mute children in a family, M., 1979; Meshcheryakov A. I. About technical means for deaf, blind and mute persons, Defectology, No. 1, page 68, 1969; it, Deaf, blind and mute children, M., 1974.

V. P. Timokhin.