DAY NURSERY, YASLI-SAD — the public preschool institutions for public education of children aged from 2 months up to 7 years. Day nursery and day nursery gardens give the chance of wives - shchine - mothers to take active part in production activity, social and political and cultural life of the country, provide education in group of the healthy, harmoniously developed children.
In pre-revolutionary Russia there was single day nursery shelters which is contained on charitable means. In 1913 there were 19 city day nursery on 550 places and 343 seasonal day nursery in the village on 10 600 places. In the years of World War I these institutions were almost liquidated. After Great October socialist revolution among the first institutions of the state system of protection of motherhood and an infancy began to organize a children's day nursery. Day nursery opened in the mansions requisitioned at the bourgeoisie, in private apartments, equipped with accidental furniture, clothes, ware, in them there were no toys, grants, the teachers trained on short-term courses worked. In the 20th the main areas of work of a day nursery — prevention inf were defined. diseases, organization of recreational actions, carrying out educational work, dignity. education of mothers. It was paid to training of service personnel much attention. In the 30th, during industrialization of the country, the network of a day nursery considerably extended. Construction of special buildings was begun, the first standard projects of a day nursery are developed. Also «house» day nursery in houses was under construction. Due to the big need for a day nursery at the industrial enterprises the replaceable groups working in 2 and 3 changes were created.
In days of the Great Patriotic War in the occupied territory practically all day nursery was destroyed. At the same time in the cities and the villages of Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia where evacuated children, the network of a day nursery extended due to allocation of the adapted rooms, consolidation of the existing institutions. Many day nursery was transferred to the round-the-clock service. For the weakened and sick children opened a sanatorium day nursery (groups). Broad development was gained by a seasonal day nursery in rural areas.
In post-war years the network of a day nursery everywhere extended. From 50th the day nursery which was in a health system partially began to transfer to the industrial ministries, and then bodies of national education. In 1959 for implementation of the uniform educational system of children of preschool age answering to problems of the subsequent education at school, two types of child care facilities — day nursery and kindergarten (see) were taking into account local opportunities and conditions are integrated and reorganized into the uniform preschool institution which received the name «day nursery garden». New construction began to be carried out preferential on projects of a day nursery gardens. In this regard the network of a day nursery began to be reduced. In 1984 in the country was available 10,1 thousand day nursery on 721 thousand children (in 1960 — 27 thousand on 1313 thousand children) and apprx. 127,8 thousand day nursery gardens and kindergartens on 15,04 million children. From 1960 for 1984 the number of kindergartens was reduced from 37,4 thousand to 30,1 thousand, and places in them — from 2756 thousand to 2061 thousand. At the same time the number of a day nursery gardens from 6,2 thousand increased up to 97,7 thousand, and the number of places in them — from 359 thousand to 12 986 thousand. More than 60% of preschool institutions are in system of the industrial ministries, about 30% in system of the Ministry of Public Education of the USSR, 6% under the authority of collective farms and 3% in system of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.
Except a day nursery and a day nursery gardens of the general type gained development of establishment (group) of a special purpose — for children with a hearing disorder, speeches, sight, a musculoskeletal system, mentally retarded children. There are sanatorium institutions for children with early displays of a tuberculosis infection, with the small and calming-down forms of tuberculosis, and also for the children who are in contact with TB patients.
Construction of a day nursery gardens is planned at the rate of 30 — 40 places for children up to 3 years and 50 — 60 places for children of 3 — 7 years for 1000 residents of the cities. Buildings of a day nursery gardens are designed taking into account age groups: younger yaselny — from 2 months to
1 year, average yaselny — from 1 to 2 years, senior yaselny —
from 2 to 3 years, younger preschool — yut 3 up to 4 years, average preschool — from 4 to 5 years, senior preschool — from 5 to 6 years and preparatory — from 6 to 7 years. The number of places in younger — 15, average and senior yaselny groups — on 20, in preschool — on 25. In a day nursery gardens of a special purpose the number of groups decreases to 10 — 15 children.
There are types of buildings of a day nursery gardens with number of groups from 1 to 14 (from 25 to 340 places). With the permission of the Ministry of Public Education of the republic complexes of a day nursery gardens on 24 and more groups (560 and more places) are allowed. According to the «Construction norms and rules» approved by the State Committee for Construction of the USSR for the cities and large settlements a day nursery gardens is projected with the number of places not less than 140, for settlements of city type — 90 places, rural populated points — 25 places. A day nursery gardens on 140, 160, 280 and 320 places, in rural areas — 50 and 90 places is most widespread in the cities.
For each age group the isolated placements with effective area not less than 4 sq.m on the child are provided in a day nursery gardens. Group rooms, razdevalnya, umyvalnya, a water-closet, and for children up to 3 years - also a verandah are their part. Halls for musical and sports occupations, the medical room, rooms for sick children, administrative rooms (an office of the manager, the room for personnel, linen, catering department, a laundry, etc.) are isolated from children's rooms. Noyay projects of buildings of a day nursery gardens provide 2 gymnasiums, the pool for training of children in swimming (fig. 1). Each group has the fenced, planted trees and shrubs and equipped walking platform (fig. 2). Besides, in the territory of a day nursery gardens the general sports platforms, a kitchen garden berry-picker, the platform for animals and birds, etc. can be located with Plo-
of Fig. 1. The pool for recreational swimming of children of a day nursery gardens No. 1144 of Krasnopresnensky district of Moscow.
Fig. 2. The walking platform for children of average nursery of a day nursery gardens No. 1144 of Krasnopresnensky district of Moscow.
shchad the land plot it is allocated at the rate of 35, 40 and 45 sq.m for 1 place, its reduction to 25 sq.m by 1 place is in some cases allowed.
DAY NURSERY, YASLI-SAD 535
Equip a day nursery gardens according to the standard sets of the equipment approved by the State Committee for Construction of the USSR, in to-rye furniture, the sports equipment, sports equipment, toys, uchebnonaglyadny grants, medical tools, economic stock and so forth enters. In the list of the equipment the number of children's groups and duration of stay of children in them is considered. Each group has quantity of beds, necessary on number of children, 2 or 3 sets of tables and the chairs corresponding to growth of children, cases for clothes, toys. In younger nurseries establish arenas, barriers, swaddling tables. Special attention is paid to the sports equipment including for development of movements, the Crimea halls, walking platforms and children's groups are equipped.
Food of children in day nursery, a day nursery gardens is carried out according to the approved norms on recommendations and under control of bodies of health care and sanitary and epidemiologic service. At the same time age standards of need of children for the main feedstuffs and calories are considered.
The States pedagogical, medical and administrative personnel of a day nursery and day nursery gardens establish according to the standard states approved by the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the Ministry of Public Education of the USSR. To a position of the head a day nursery appoints the average medic, by a day nursery gardens — the worker with the finished pedagogical education. Nurses and tutors of a day nursery also shall have the corresponding education (see the Nurse, 20 t., additional materials).
Day nursery and day nursery gardens will be organized by executive committees of Councils of People's Deputies or with their permission the state enterprises, institutions and the organizations, collective farms, cooperative and other public organizations. The pedagogical guide and training of pedagogical workers for day nursery and a day nursery gardens, irrespective of their departmental accessory, are carried out by bodies of national education, and the treatment-and-prophylactic help and providing with medics — bodies of health care.
Children in day nursery and a day nursery gardens are accepted in the directions of local bodies of health care, national education or trade-union committees of the enterprises or organizations. In institutions of a special purpose — according to the conclusion of the medico-pedagogical commission. Child care out-patient and polyclinic facilities carry out work on training of the child for inclusion in preschool institution according to methodical recommendations M3 of the USSR. The doctor, sending the child to establishment, fills an extract from history of development, at indications inspects it on a bacteriocarrier, issues the certificate of lack of contacts with infectious patients.
Activity of a day nursery and day nursery gardens is aimed at all-round development of children, their correct physical and moral training, intellectual development, instilling of skills of a healthy lifestyle. For this purpose with children carry out educational work on the «Program of education in kindergarten» developed by Academy of pedagogical sciences of the USSR taking into account fiziol. features of children of various age and providing development of mental capacities, speeches, formation of character of the child, implementation of art education, instilling a gigabyte. skills, a habit to work, education of love for the country, to the people, parents, respect for seniors, ability is correct to behave among children and adults. The child care facility is created necessary a dignity. - a gigabyte. the conditions for the correct development and education of children corresponding to the «Health regulations of the device and the maintenance of preschool institutions» approved by the chief state health officer of the USSR. Special attention is paid to an air and temperature schedule, level of natural and artificial illumination, a dignity. to the maintenance of rooms, observance of rules of storage of products and cookings, to anti-epidemic actions. The day regimen in child care facility corresponds fiziol. to norms of wakefulness and duration of a dream of children of various age, provides sufficient stay in the fresh air, holding organized occupations, recreational and preventive actions. At testimonies of certain children transfer to the individual mode. Physical training of children is carried out taking into account age, physical development, the state of health and consists in performing massage, gymnastics (to children till 1 year), organized sports occupations, morning exercises, various outdoor games and sports entertainments. For the purpose of a hardening children receive air bathtubs, various hydrotherapeutic procedures (rubdowns, douches, a shower, recreational swimming).
Medical overseeing by children in day nursery and a day nursery gardens of the cities is carried out by doctors of preschool and school departments of children's policlinics, in the village — doctors of rural medical out-patient clinic, local regional and central regional by BC. Nurses enter into staff of a day nursery, day nursery gardens. Medics exercise control for a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions, correct organization of a day regimen, compliance educational and study gigabyte. to requirements, catering services, physical training, a hardening of children, carry out work on prevention of diseases and traumatism, sanitary education of parents and a gigabyte. to education of children, professional development of personnel concerning health protection of children. Dispensary observation for children includes planned surveys of children by pediatricians and specialists in the terms established to M3 of the USSR. It allows to reveal timely deviations in development and the state of health of the child and to organize necessary treatment, including directly in a day nursery gardens that is the most effective (sanitation of an oral cavity, physiotherapeutic procedures, corrective gymnastics, physiotherapy exercises). In day nursery, a day nursery gardens of a special purpose of children specialists of territorial children's policlinic (the ophthalmologist, the otolaryngologist, the neuropathologist, the orthopedist) systematically examine, all complex of medical and social rehabilitation — medical and recreational actions, the corresponding education, training, acquisition of some labor skills is carried out.
Day nursery and day nursery gardens annually report on the work to education authorities, health care, the department. The main indicators of activity of a day nursery, day nursery gardens are: ukomplekto
a vannost children for the end of financial year, attendance (the relation of carried out is put - days to planned), number of the missed days on average 1 child a year, including due to illness, incidence (the general and in nosological forms) on 100 or 1000 children of average structure. In reports of out-patient and polyclinic institutions there are data on the state of health of children of the organized collectives, including number revealed at routine maintenances of children with vision disorders, hearing, the speech, a bearing and lagging behind in physical development. The analysis of indicators is carried out by the doctor, the senior nurse, the manager of preschool and school department, in the village — the regional pediatrician. Results tell the head of establishment and the relevant organizations for taking a step for further strengthening of health of children and decrease in their incidence.
In a crust, time in preschool institutions of the country considerable success in the organization of education and health protection of children is achieved. The children who are brought up in day nursery, a day nursery gardens develop physically better, seize many useful skills earlier, are more independent, are better prepared for training at school. The system of collective education of children of early and preschool age developed by the Soviet pediatricians and physiologists gained wide recognition not only in our country, but also abroad and formed the basis of creation of work of preschool institutions in many countries, first of all in socialist.
Bibliography: And to with and r and N and H. M and d river. Development and education of the child from the birth up to three years, M., 1969; r e e sh e-in and I. I. Organization of the treatment-and-prophylactic help to children, M., 1977; Kindergarten, under the editorship of JI. P. Tarasova, M., 1982; The Organization of medical care to children in preschool institutions, under the editorship of I. I. Grebesheva, M., 1984; The Management for doctors of a day nursery and children's homes, under the editorship of JI. V. Grechishnikova, M., 1957; Frolov V. G. and Yu r to about G. P. Sports occupations on air with children of preschool age, M., 1983; 60 years of the Soviet health care, glavn. edition B. V. Petrovsky, M., 1977. JI. V. Druzhinina.