DAVYDOVSKY Ippolit Vasilyevich (1887 — 1968) — the Soviet pathologist, the academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1944), the honored worker of science of RSFSR (1940), Hera of Socialist Work (1957), the winner of the Lenin award (1964), the vice-president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1946—1950, 1957—1960).
Was born in a family of the priest in Danilov of the Yaroslavl province. Having ended in 1910 medical f-t Moscow un-that, worked as the health officer in the New Ladoga County of the St. Petersburg province, and then the territorial doctor in the village Ilyinsky of the Rostov County of the Yaroslavl province. Since 1912 the supernumerary assistant to department patol, anatomy Moscow un-that, headed by M. N. Nikiforov. Along with 1913 and until the end of life would work as the prosector of pathoanatomical department Yauza city (nowadays Clinical-tsa No. 23 of Medsantrud). The manager was involved in World War I as the regimental doctor. laboratory of the Western front where began researches on patol, anatomy of a sapropyra and a paratyphoid. In 1918 returned on department patol, anatomy of 1 MSU and held positions of the assistant to the prosector, prosector of department (1921 — 1930). From 1930 to day of death of the department chair patol, anatomy medical f-that the 2nd MMI of N. I. Pirogov. In days of the Great Patriotic War there was the chief pathologist of Management evakogospitaly Narkomzdrava of the USSR.
I. V. Davydovsky published the St. 200 scientific works devoted to questions patol, anatomy and a pathogeny of infectious diseases, pathology of a fighting injury, the organization of prosection business, to questions of the general pathology and philosophical problems of medicine. He fairly believed that pathoanatomical department in would have to be a source of the new facts and thoughts, the center of the research directed to professional development of doctors of all specialties, improvement to lay down. affairs. Therefore he paid much attention to questions of the organization of pathoanatomical service.
Being a non-staff consultant of the Moscow public health department for affairs prozektur and laboratories (1921 — 1930), he managed to resolve many organizational and regular issues, questions of supply of pathoanatomical service. In 1935 Narkomzdravom and with active assistance of I. V. Davydovsky was published by RSFSR on the basis of decisions of the All-Russian conference of pathologists (1934) the first order on the organization of pathoanatomical service, in Krom all main aspects of activity of pathologists were reflected. The subsequent documents on pathoanatomical service were development of these original positions stated in the order. In it organizational and regular questions, the principles of checking a wedge, and anatomic diagnoses and the analysis of medical errors were defined, uniform forms of the account and reporting of pathoanatomical service, etc. are established. Attaching great value to the scientific analysis and critical evaluation of discrepancy a wedge, and pathoanatomical diagnoses, he called for that the pathologist, analyzing them, did not become a judge, and remained the doctor; emphasized that defects of diagnosis, in particular percent of discrepancy of diagnoses, would should not serve as criterion for evaluation of work. At the initiative of I. V. Davydovsky began to be carried out kliniko-anatomic conferences (see), become afterwards obligatory in all to lay down. institutions of the country. In 1925 he the first at the department run by A. I. Abrikosov, began to give a course private patol, anatomy not on organ, and on nozol, to the principle. In 1932 the order of Committee on affairs of the higher school this principle of teaching patol, anatomy was entered in all medical higher educational institutions of the country.
According to the new principle of teaching a course private patol. I. V. Davydovsky wrote to anatomy in medical educational institutions the original management «Pathological anatomy and a pathogeny of the major diseases of the person», a cut sustained three editions (1935, 1938 and 1956). In the management on the basis of own materials and observations it gave deeply scientific analysis of problems of pathology. It played a big role not only in formation of the new principle of teaching, but also in development domestic patol, anatomy.
The researches conducted by it on patol, anatomy of a sapropyra gained wide recognition. Its thesis on this subject was published in Russian (1921) and the German (1923) languages. In a number of monographs and articles it developed original views of infectious process as on the peculiar symbiosis macro-and microorganisms having adaptive character and subjected to sharp criticism of idea of revaluation of a role of bacteria in development of infectious process and underestimation of a condition of a macroorganism, gave definition of sepsis as special form of generalization of infectious process with dominance of the general over local, with loss of dependence of the general reaction of an organism on the local center — a source of generalization. This situation was checked and confirmed during the studying of pathology of a fighting injury and infectious complications of a wound process.
I. V. Davydovsky in monographs «Bullet Wound of the Person» and «Pathology of Gunshot Wounds and Damages» (the 34th volume of the work «Experience of the Soviet Medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945.») developed the doctrine about a wound process and showed that in the bullet raw wound with the participation of microorganisms inevitably there is a purulent fusion of dead fabrics with the subsequent their rassasyvaniye and that this process is process biol, cleanings of a wound (secondary clarification of a wound). Existence of inflammatory reaction in the field of a wound with the subsequent growth of granulyatsionny fabric and scarring is characteristic of normal healing of bullet wounds (so-called secondary healing according to N. I. Pirogov) and cannot be considered as a complication. However at extensive damages with adverse local and general premises for healing local complications (purulent flow, abscesses, phlegmons, secondary bleedings, etc.), which can be followed by the general reaction of an organism (temperature, changes of blood etc.), adequate to changes in area of a wound are possible. I. V. Davydovsky called similar states is purulent - resorptive fever (see), having various duration and weight. In these cases there can be also true sepsis, similar to sepsis of peace time, not depending on changes in a wound. At long it is purulent - to resorptive fever traumatic exhaustion can develop. These theoretical ideas of a current of a wound process and a pathogeny of the general reactions of an organism emphasized need of timely surgical treatment of bullet wounds for achievement, according to I. V. Davydovsky, «anatomic purity of a wound» and fight against the general phenomena is purulent - resorptive fever. These researches of I. V. Davydovsky which caused a brisk discussion, hl. obr. with surgeons, promoted deeper understanding of essence of the processes happening in an organism and in the field of a wound and also progress in treatment of wounded.
A number of works of I. V. Davydovsky is devoted to problems arteriosclerosis (see). He considered changes of vessels biol, the process connected with age; such diseases as coronary heart disease can evolve from this process, a brain, etc. I. V. Davydovsky critically treated the infiltrative theory of atherosclerosis and rejected adequacy of an experimental lipoidosis of arteries to atherosclerosis of the person. Results of the researches obshchepatol, processes he stated in the book «General Pathology of the Person» published in 1961 and 1969.
In the monograph «Gerontology» conferred an award of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of A. I. Abrikosov proved need of intensive work with physical. loadings and a reasonable way of life for a healthy old age.
I. V. Davydovsky made a big contribution to development of philosophical problems of medicine. In the 20th he participated in meetings about-va «Leninism in medicine», was the organizer of a row metodol. discussions concerning a pathogeny and dialectic communication of pathology and physiology, about development of pathogenetic mechanisms, their communication with clinic and physiology. In a discussion on problems of a nervosism and a so-called virkhovianstvo he showed absence at a number of critics of historical approach to assessment of the doctrine of R. Virkhov, emphasized that for understanding fiziol, to essence patol, processes it is necessary to approach their studying in a complex, applying all methods morfol. researches.
It one of the first pathologists creatively developed and connected Sechenov's doctrine — Pavlova — Vvedensky with problems of pathology and perspectives of development Soviet patol. anatomy in the light of resolutions of the Pavlovsk session of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. He stated the opinion of these problems in the monograph «Questions of Localization and Organopathology in the light of Sechenov's Schoolgirls — Pavlova — Vvedensky» (1954).
Its monograph «Problem of Causality in Medicine (Aetiology)» and the article «Philosophical Bases of Pathology» where its opinion is stated of a role of philosophy in development of medicine are devoted to philosophical problems of pathology. He considered that the modern medicine, studying problems of the general pathology, shall investigate comprehensively the healthy and sick person, being guided by the principles of unity of an organism and Wednesday, integrity of an organism, self-control, self-movement and biological expediency.
I. V. Davydovsky was many years a chairman Moscow and All-Union scientific about-in pathologists, since 1955 the editor of the Archive of Pathology magazine, in 1 prod. BME associate editor of an edition of department «General pathology», associate editor of the 2nd prod. BME. It is awarded by the Orders of Lenin and the Labour Red Banner.
Works: Pathological anatomy and pathology of a sapropyra, p.1 — 2, M., 1921 — 1922; Kliniko-anatomichesky conferences, their place and value in system of hospital work, Arkh. stalemate. annate., JVe 1, page 3, 1935; Bullet wound of the person, t. 1 — 2, M., 1950 — 1954; Questions of localization and an organopathology in the light of Sechenov's doctrine — Pavlova — Vvedensky, M., 1954; By century of «cellular pathology» of Rudolf Virkhov, Arkh. patol., t. 18, Kya 5, page 3, 1956; The Doctrine about an infection, M., 1956; Pathological anatomy and pathogeny of diseases of the person, t. 1 — 2, M., 1956 — 1958; Compensatory and adaptive processes (Biological aspects of a problem), Arkh. patol., t. 24, No. 8, page 7, 1962; The Problem of causality in medicine (etiology), M., 1962; Gerontology, M., 1966; Methodological bases of pathology, Vopr, philosophies, No. 5, page 84, 1968; General pathology of the person, M., 1969; Philosophical bases of pathology, Arkh. patol., t. 31, No. 6, page 3, 1969; Chosen lectures on pathology, M., 1975.
Bibliography: Ippolit Vasilyevich Davydovsky, Arkh. patol., t. 10, No. 1, page 69, 1948; Ippolit Vasilyevich Davydovsky (To the 75 anniversary since birth), in the same place, t. 24, No. 8, page 5, 1962; I. V. Davydovsky (To the 70 anniversary since birth), Owls. medical, No. 10, page 154, 1957; Ippolit Vasilyevich Davydovsky's Memories (1887 — 1968), K 85 anniversary since birth, Arkh. patol., t. 34, Kya And, page 82, 1972; Chekarevag. And. and Mishnev of O. D. Shkol of the academician I. V. Davydovsky, Works of the 2nd Mosk. medical in-that, t. 21, page 42, 1973.
N. A. Krayevsky.