DATA PROCESSING — process of transformation of the numerical, sound, visual and other information obtained as a result of pilot studies or overseeing by the course of course of various processes and the phenomena. Such information, in particular, can be obtained at inspection of patients, during the studying of dynamics and a distributional pattern of individual diseases, epidemics etc. Set of separate data also makes those information arrays, to-rye are subject to processing in order that it was possible to draw conclusions on character, tendencies and patterns of the considered phenomena or processes. As in many real situations it is necessary to process the considerable volume of data, process of their processing demands use of special means, methods and ways, in particular electronic computer (see). At O. widely apply mathematical methods (see) the data processing allowing to receive necessary authentic data even in cases of incompleteness of data and various degree of their objectivity. Depending on the used means and a method data can register and collect on the most various data carriers — on paper, punched cards, magnetic tapes and disks. The choice of specific means and ways of collecting and data storage, and also their direct processing depend on a type of the obtained information, ways of its receiving, volumes, the frequency of updating, and also on the nature of use of results of processing. Often possibly several ways of O. of
Due to the increase in volume of data, to-rye it is necessary to process that is caused by the increased scales of human activity and the general scientific and technical progress, O. of became particularly important and, in essence, turned into a separate field of activity; the numerous specialized systems on data processing which are a basis are created information retrieval systems (see).
In medicine the large volume of data caused emergence of special so-called bases and data banks. The database is made by information on various objects (the hospitals, diseases sick etc.) processed so that on its basis it was possible to receive necessary data. Databases together with programs of their processing form the corresponding data banks, to-rye may contain data as on individual diseases and the contingents of patients, and global data on the state of health of the population of separate points, areas, republics of all country. Bases and data banks, as a rule, intend for collective use.
The medical information which is appropriately processed and stored in data banks can exchange on the similar information which is stored in other banks.
Bibliography: Nimbuses A.I. and Venchikov V. A. The main methods of statistical processing of results of observations in the field of physiology, M., 1974; Ole U., etc. Information systems of general purpose, the lane with English, M., 1975; D. K Falcons. Mathematical modeling in medicine, M., 1974.
O. I. Aven.