DANILEVSKY Alexander Yakovlevich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DANILEVSKY Alexander Yakovlevich (1838 — 1923) — the domestic biochemist, the member correspondent. St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1898), founder of the Russia's first large school of biochemists.

DANILEVSKY Alexander Yakovlevich

Ended medical f-t Kharkiv un-that in 1860. In 1863 protected dokt, the thesis about specifically operating bodies of natural and artificial juice of a pancreas. It was the same year elected professor of department of medical chemistry Kazan un-that. In 1871 together with group of progressive professors it in protest at P.F. Lesgaft's dismissal left from Kazan un-that. In 1872 — 1875 worked in Voronezh, Kharkiv and St. Petersburg, and then in Germany and Switzerland. Since 1875 worked in the Ministry of national education. Since 1885 professor of department of medical chemistry in Kharkiv un-those. In 1892 A. Ya. Danilevsky headed in St. Petersburg department fiziol, chemistry of VMA. Since 1906 the chief of VMA. In 1910 retired. Numerous researches of A. Ya. Danilevsky are devoted to preferential proteolytic enzymes, chemistry of proteins and questions of food. Developed a method of preferential adsorption for division of amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes, proved separate existence of trypsin and amylase in juice of a pancreas.

In work about organoplastichesky forces of an organism (1886) for the first time showed a possibility of synthesis of belkovopodobny substances from peptones with the participation of enzymes and pointed to existence in cells of the agents stimulating effect of enzymes, and in 1901 it provided proofs of stay in fabrics of antienzymes (antipepsin and antitrypsin).

Investigating contents and properties are gray in hydrolysates of proteinaceous bodies in the alkalescent environment, A. Ya. Danilevsky established that the squirrel contains in a molecule not less than 10 sulfur atoms that gave a reason for review of an empirical formula of protein (C 72 H 114 N 18 O 22 S), removed by I. N. Liberkyun, and also to a conclusion about tenfold increase in the assumed earlier molecular weight of protein. In further researches (1888 — 1891) he suggested about alternation in a molecule of protein of group — NH — WITH — as in ureido formamide (see. Biuret reaction ), and about entry of amino acids into composition of protein through communication — CO — NH — edges was called later peptide.

It conducted extensive researches of casein, and also fabric proteins, in particular myoproteoses and proteins of a brain.

It with sotr. studied nitrogen and phosphoric metabolism at animals, nutritional value of proteins of meat, fish and some vegetable products.

A. Ya. Danilevsky was the organizer of the first Russian fiziol, the Physiological Collection editions (1888 — 1891).

Works: About specifically operating bodies of natural and artificial juice of a pancreas, a yew., Kharkiv, 1863; Sketch of organoplastichesky forces of organisms, Kharkiv, 1886; Chosen works, M. 1960.

Bibliography: Barchenko I. P., etc. Sketches of story of domestic hygienic science about food, page 52, M., 1975; The l and N to and I. N. N, A. Ya. Danilevsky have a B the founder of domestic biochemistry, Kharkiv, 1950, bibliogr.; In l and d and m and-r about in G. E. Alexander Yakovlevich Danilevsky, in book: Usp. biol, chemical, under the editorship of B. I. Zbarsky, t. 1, page 3, M., 1950, bibliogr.

G.E. Vladimirov.