DALTON John (Dalton John, 1766 — 1844) — the English physicist and the chemist. Acquired knowledge in the course of independent studying of sciences.
In 1793 became the mathematics teacher in New College (Manchester). Since 1799 gave lectures and gave private lessons of physics, chemistry, mathematics. Since 1822 the member London Royal about-va, since 1830 the honorary member of the Parisian academy of Sciences.
Studying properties of gas mixtures, proved that pressure of gas mixture is equal to the sum of partial pressures of the gases entering this mix (the law of portial pressures, 1801) and that solubility of each gas which is in gas mixture is proportional to its partial pressure over liquid. Also one of fundamental laws of chemistry — the law of multiple proportions (1803) is opened for them: if two substances (simple or difficult) form with each other more than one connection, then the mass of one substance falling on the same mass of other substance belongs as integers. This law had paramount value in the adoption of atomistic representations in chemistry. J. Dalton entered a concept about atomic weight of an element that was the significant contribution to further development of physics and chemistry. Since 1787 carried out systematic meteorol, observations. Having a blindness on red and green colors, for the first time investigated and described this lack of sight which received afterwards the name of daltonism in 1794 (see. Color sight ).
Works: A new system of chemical philosophy, v. 1 — 2, Manchester — L., 1808—1827, N. Y., 1964; The Collection of the chosen works on atomistics 1802 — 1810, the lane with English, L., 1940.
Bibliography: Cedars B. M. Engels and natural sciences. M, 194?; H e n r at W. Page of Memoirs of the life and scientific researches of John Dalton, L., 1854; Patterson E. C. John Dalton and the atomic theory, N. Y., 1970, bibliogr.