DAHL Vladimir Ivanovich (1801 — 1872) — the domestic writer, the ethnographer, the lexicographer, the doctor, the member correspondent. St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1838), her honorary academician (1863).
Was born in Luhansk (nowadays Voroshilovgrad) in a family of the doctor Johann Dahl, Dane by origin.
Having ended in 1819. The sea military school, served on the fleet. In 1826 retired and arrived on medical f-t of Derptsky un-that which finished ahead of schedule in 1829. Then did the doctor military service, and since 1832 worked as the intern of military and overland hospital in St. Petersburg. Since 1833 the official for special orders of the Orenburg military governor; from 1841 to 1849 the chief of special office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the secretary at the minister of destinies; in 1849 — 1859 the managing director of specific office in Nizhny Novgorod (nowadays Bitter), since 1859 retired, lodged in Moscow and entirely devoted himself to linguistics.
Working in Orenburg, was engaged; studying of flora and fauna of edge, ethnographic and historical researches. For works in this area the member correspondent was elected. St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
During service in St. Petersburg took part in the organization of Russian geographical about-va, was: the founder member and the member of council of it about-va (1845). In 30 — the 40th under the pseudonym Cossack Luhansk published a number of sketches and the national fairy tales processed by it; wrote textbooks on botany and zoology. In 1861 — 1862 published the collection «Proverbs of the Russian People». In 1863 — 1866 there was its main work — the four-volume «Explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language» containing apprx. 200 thousand words for which it was conferred the Lomonosov award of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences 'and ranks of the honorary academician. An exit, the dictionary was an important event in the history of the Russian culture. The dictionary sustained a set of editions and did not lose the value.
Being an official of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, promoted improvement of hospital matter in St. Petersburg. V. I. Dahl actively propagandized a method of treatment by koumiss. Tried to apply to treatment: patients not only methods of allopathy, but also homeopathic methods, and also folk remedies. Was influenced also volunteers by effect of homeopathic remedies to find out their efficiency. Being in public service, V. I. Dahl continued to be engaged in profession of a physician, did surgeries.
In manuscripts of articles on surgery he carried out comparison of result of the amputations executed in the battlefield and after long stay of wounded in hospital. Less favorable result of the late amputations executed in hospital, V. I. Dahl connected with hospital infections.
As the doctor and the friend V. I. Dahl was at a bed of the dying A.S. Pushkin till last minutes of his life (he got acquainted with Pushkin in 1832 during service in Orenburg).
Works: Complete works, t. 1 — 10, SPb., 1897 — 1898. Explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language, t. 1 — 4, M. * 1955.
Bibliography: Bessarab M. Ya. Vladimir Dahl, M., 1972; Porudominsky V. I. Dahl (1801 — 1872). M, 1971.
V. A. Ponomarchuk, Yu. P. Korotkov.