CYTOLOGY (Greek kytos a receptacle, here — a cell + logos the doctrine) — science about a structure, functions and development of zooblasts and plants, and also unicells and bacteria. Cytologic researches (see) have essential value for diagnosis of diseases of the person and animals.
Distinguish the general and private Ts. Obshchaya Ts. (cytobiology) studies the general for the majority of types of cells of structure, their function, metabolism, reactions to damage, patol. changes, reparative processes and adaptation to conditions of the environment. Private C. investigates features of separate types of cells in connection with their specialization (at metaphytes) or evolutionary adaptation to the habitat (at protests and bacteria).
Development of C. it is historically connected with creation and improvement of a microscope (see) and histologic methods of a research (see). The term «cell» was for the first time applied by Guk (R. Nooke, 1665) who described a cellular texture (more precisely — cellulose covers of cells) a number of vegetable fabrics. In 17 century of observation of Guk were confirmed and developed to M. Malpigi, Gr (N. Grew, 1671),
A. Levenguk. In 1781. F. Fontana published drawings of zooblasts with kernels.
In the first half of 19 century idea of a cell as about one of base units of an organism began to form. In 1831 Mr. R. Brown found a kernel in cells of plants, gave it the name «nucleus» and assumed about existence of this structure at all vegetable and zooblasts. In 1832 Mr. of Dyumortye (V. S. Dumortier), and in 1835. H. Mohl observed division of plant cells. In 1838 M. Shleyden described a kernel in kernels of plant cells.
Prevalence of a cellular texture in an animal kingdom was shown by Dyutroshe's researches (R. J. H. Dutrochet, 1824), Raspaya (F. V. Raspail, 1827), schools Ya. Pur-kinye and I. Müller. Ya. Purkinye the first described a kernel of a zooblast (1825), developed ways of coloring and an enlightenment of cellular drugs, applied the term «protoplasm», was one of the first who tried to compare structural elements of animal and vegetable organisms (1837).
In 1838 — 1839 T. Shvann formulated the cellular theory (see), in a cut the cell was considered as a basis of a structure, life activity and development of all animals and plants. T. Shvann's concept about a cell as about a first stage of the organization having all complex of properties of live kept the value and in a crust, time.
To transformation of the cellular theory into a universal biol. the doctrine promoted disclosure of the nature of protozoa. In 1841 — 1845 Zibold (S. Th. Siebold) formulated a concept about one-celled animals and distributed to them the cellular theory.
An important stage in development of C. there was a creation of the doctrine by R. Virkhov about cellular pathology (see). He considered cells as material substrate of diseases that involved in their studying not only anatomists and physiologists, but also pathologists (see. Pathological anatomy). R. Virkhov also postulated an origin of new cells only from pre-existing. Considerably under the influence of R. Virkhov's works and his school review of views of the nature of cells began. If earlier its cover, then in 1861 to Shulttsa was considered as the most important structural element of a cell (M. of Schultze) gave new definition of a cell as «a lump of protoplasm, inside to-rogo the kernel lies»; i.e. the kernel was final is recognized as an obligatory component of a cell. In the same 1861 Mr. E. W. Brucke showed complexity of a structure of protoplasm.
Detection of organoids (see) cells — the cellular center (see the Cell), mitochondrions (see), Golgi's complex (see Golgi a complex), and also opening in cellular kernels of nucleic acids (see) promoted establishment of ideas of a cell as about a complex multi-component system. Studying of processes of a mitosis [Strasburger (E. Stras-burger, 1875); P. I. Peremezhko, 1878; V. Flemming (1878)] led to opening of chromosomes (see), to establishment of the rule of specific constancy of their number [Rabl (To. Rabi, 1885)] and to creation of the theory of identity of chromosomes [Boveri (Th. Boveri, 1887)]. These opening along with studying of processes of fertilization (see), biol. the essence to-rogo was found out by O. Gertvig (1875), phagocytosis (see), reactions of cells to irritants promoted that at the end of 19 century the cytology becomes the independent section of biology. Carnoy (J. V. Sagpou, 4884) introduced the concept «cytobiology» for the first time and formulated idea of cytology as to the science studying a form, structure, function and evolution of cells.
A great influence on development of C. rendered establishment of laws of inheritance of characters by G. Mendel (see Mendel laws) and the subsequent treatment them given at the beginning of
20 century. These opening led to creation of the chromosomal theory of heredity (see) and to formation in cytology of a recent trend — cytogenetics (see), and also a karyology (see).
Development of a method of culture of fabrics (see Cultures of cells and fabrics) and its modifications — a method of single-layer cultures of cells, a method of organ cultures of fragments of fabric on border of a medium and gas phase, method of culture of bodies or their fragments on covers of chicken embryos, in tissues of animals or in a medium became an important event in science about a cell. They gave the chance for a long time to watch life activity of cells out of an organism, to study their movement, division, a differentiation in detail, etc. Especially the method of single-layer cellular cultures [D. Youngner, 1954] which played a big role in development not only cytology but also virology, and also in receiving a number of antiviral vaccines was widely adopted. Intravital studying of cells is promoted to a large extent by microcinematography (see), phase-contrast microscopy (see), luminescent microscopy (see), a micrurgy (see), vital coloring (see). These methods allowed to receive many new data on functional value of a number of cellular components.
Introduction to C. quantitative methods of a research led to establishment of the law of the specific constancy of the sizes of cells [H. Driesch, 1899] specified afterwards E. M. Vermel and known as law of constancy of the minimum cellular sizes. Jacobi (W. Jacobi, 1925) found a phenomenon of consecutive doubling of volume of kernels of cells that in many cases corresponds to doubling of chromosome number in cells. Also the changes of the sizes of kernels connected with a functional condition of cells as in normal conditions [A. Benning-hoff, 1950], and at pathology were revealed (Ya. E. Hesin, 1967).
Methods of the chemical analysis in C. began to apply in 1825 Raspay. However crucial importance for development of cytochemistry Lizon's works (L. Lison, 1936) had, Glik (D. Glick, 1949), Pierce (A. G. E. Reag-se, 1953). The big contribution to development of cytochemistry was made also B. V. Kedrovsky (1942, 1951),
by A. L. Shabadash (1949), G. I. Ros-kin and L. B. Levinson (1957).
Development of methods of cytochemical identification nucleinic to - t, in particular Feylgen's reactions (see. Deoxyribonucleic acid) and Eynarson's method, in combination with cytophotometry (see) allowed to specify considerably ideas of a trophicity of cells, of mechanisms and biol. value of polyploidization (V. Ya. Brodsky, I. V. Ury-vayeva, 1981).
In the first half of 20 century the functional role of intracellular structures begins to become clear. In particular, D. N. Nasonov (1923) works established participation of a complex of Golgi in formation of secretory granules. Hodzhbu (G. The N of No-geboom, 1948) proved that mitochondrions are the centers of cellular respiration. N. K. Koltsov for the first time formulated idea of chromosomes as carriers of molecules of heredity, and also entered into C. the concept «cytoskeleton» (see Cytoplasm).
The scientific and technological revolution of the middle of 20 century led to rapid development of C. and to review of a number of its representations. By means of a submicroscopy (see) the structure was studied and functions of earlier known organoids of cells are in many respects opened, the whole world of submicroscopic structures is open (see Membranes biological, the Endoplasmic reticulum, Lysosomes, Ribosomes). These opening are connected with names of Porter (To. R. Porter), J. Peleyd, H. Ris, W. Bernhard, C. de Duva and other outstanding scientists. Studying of ultrastructure of cells allowed to divide all live organic world into an eukaryote (see Eukariotny organisms) and prokariot (see Prokariotny organisms).
Development of molecular biology (see) showed a basic community of a genetic code (see) and mechanisms of synthesis of protein on matrixes nucleinic to - t for all organic world, including a kingdom of viruses. New methods of allocation and studying of cellular components, development and improvement of cytochemical researches, especially cytochemistry of enzymes, use of radioisotopes for studying of processes of synthesis of cellular macromolecules, implementation of methods of electronic cytochemistry, use of marked antibodies of a flyuorokhromama for studying by means of fluorescence analysis of localization of individual cellular proteins, methods of preparative and analytical centrifuging considerably expanded borders of C. also led to deleting of accurate sides between cytology, developmental biology, biochemistry, molecular biophysics and molecular biology.
From purely morphological science of the recent past modern C. developed in the experimental discipline comprehending philosophy of activity of a cell and through it — bases of life of organisms. Development of methods of change of kernels in denucleated cells Gerdon (J. Century of Gurdon, 1974), somatic hybridization of cells Lordly (G. Barski, 1960), Harris (N. of Harris, 1970), Efrussi (V. of Eph-russi, 1972) gave the chance to study patterns of reactivation of genes, to define localization of many genes in chromosomes of the person and to approach the solution of a number of practical problems of medicine (e.g., the analysis of the nature of a malignancy of cells), and also the national economy (e.g., receiving new pages - x. cultures, etc.). On the basis of methods of hybridization of cells the technology of receiving stationary antibodies of the hybrid cells producing antibodies of the set specificity (monoclones) was created. They are already used for the solution of a number of theoretical questions of immunology, microbiology and virology. Use of these clones for improvement of diagnosis and treatment of a number of diseases of the person, studying of epidemiology inf begins. diseases, etc. Tsitol. the analysis taken from sick cells (quite often after their cultivation out of an organism) matters for diagnosis of nek-ry hereditary diseases (e.g., a pigmental xeroderma, glycogenoses) and studying of their nature. Also perspectives of use of achievements of C are outlined. for treatment of genetic diseases of the person, prevention of hereditary pathology, creation of new highly productive strains of bacteria, increase in productivity of plants.
Versatility of problems of a research of a cell, specifics and a variety of methods of its studying caused in a crust, time formation in C. six main directions: 1) to the cytomorphology studying features of the structural organization of a cell as the main methods of a research a cut serves various ways of microscopy as fixed (svetooptichesky, electronic, polarization microscopy), and living cell (the darkfield condenser, phase and contrast and luminescent microscopy); 2) the cytophysiology studying cell activity as uniform live system, and also functioning and interaction of its intracellular structures; for the solution of these tasks use various experimental methods in combination with methods of culture of cells and fabrics, microcinematography and a micrurgy; 3) the cytochemistry (see) investigating the molecular organization of a cell and its separate components, and also the chemical changes connected with processes of a metabolism and functions of a cell; cytochemical researches are conducted svetomikroskopichesky and electronic and microscopic by methods, by methods of cyto photometry (see), ultraviolet and interferential microscopy, an autoradiography (see) and fractional centrifuging (see) with the subsequent chemical analysis of various fractions; 4) the cytogenetics (see) studying patterns of the structural and functional organization of chromosomes of eukariotny organisms; 5) the cytoecology (see) investigating reactions of cells to influence of environmental factors and mechanisms of adaptation to them; 6) cytopathologies, the cut is a subject studying patol. processes in a cell (see).
In the USSR various directions modern C. are presented by I. A. Alov,
V. Ya. Brodsky, Yu. M. Vasilyev, O. I. Yepifanova's researches, JI. N. Zhinkina,
A. A. Zavarzina, A. V. Zelenin, I. B. Raykov, P. P. Rumyantsev,
N. G. Hrushchov, Yu. S. Chentsov,
B. A. Shakhlomova, V. N. Yarygin, etc. Problems of cytogenetics and fine structure of chromosomes are developed in A. A. Prokofje-voy-Beljgovskaya's laboratories, A. F. Zakharova (t. 15, additional materials), I. I. Kiknadze.
Along with traditional in our country also such recent trends of C develop. as ultrastruk-turny pathology of a cell, virus cytopathology, cytopharmacology — assessment of effect of medicines by methods C. on cultures of cells, oncological cytology, the space cytology studying features of behavior of cells in the conditions of space flights.
Researches in the area C. Ying-those are conducted in Ying-those cytology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, cytology and genetics of the Siberian department of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying-those geneticists and cytology of AN of BSSR, at departments of cytology and histology of high fur boots and medical in-t, in tsitol. laboratories Ying-that molecular biology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying-that developmental biology of N. K. Koltsov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying-that evolutionary morphology and zooecology of
A. N. Severtsov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying-that morphology of the person of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Ying-that epidemiology and microbiology of N. F. Gamalei of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Ying-that medical genetics of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, in All-Union oncological scientific center of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Researches on C. are coordinated by Scientific council on problems of cytology at Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
C. it is taught as the independent section it is aware of histology at departments of histology and embryology of medical in-t and at departments of cytology and histology of high fur boots.
The specialists working in the area C., in our country are united in All-Union in anatomists, histologists and embryologists, in Moscow in cytologists, in sections of cytology Moscow about-va testers of the nature. Are available also international about-va cytologists: International
about-in in biology of cells (International Society of Cell Biology), the International organization for a research of cells (International Cell Research Organization), the European organization for cytobiology (European Cell Biology Organization).
Works on C. are published in magazines «Tsitologiya», «Tsitologiya i genetika», and also in many foreign magazines. The international multivolume editions on C are periodically published.: Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology (England, USA), International Review of Cytology (USA), Protoplasmologia (Austria). Bibliography: History — Vermelye.M. Story of the doctrine about a cell, M., 1970, bibliogr.; e r t in both Oh, the Cell and fabrics, Fundamentals of the general anatomy and physiology, the lane with it., t. 1 — 2, SPb., 1894; To and c of N e l ý-with about N 3. C. The main stages of development of cytology, in book: The management on tsitol., under the editorship of A.S. Troshin, t. 1, page 16, M. — JI., 1965; About of N e in I. F. Kurs of normal histology, p.1, M., 1908; P e r e m e - to about P. I. The doctrine about a cell, in book: The bases to studying of microscopical anatomy of the person and animals, under the editorship of M. D. Lavdovsky and F. V. Ovsyannikov, t. 1, page 49, SPb., 1887; Petlenkov. The item and To l and sh about in A. A. The cellular theory and the theory of cells (To the 100 anniversary from the date of T. Shvann's death), Arkh. annate., gistol. and embriol., t. 83, century 11, page 17, 1982, bibliogr.;
Sh in and N of N of T. Microscopic examinations about compliance in structure and growth of animals and plants, the lane with it. M — JI., 1939; With a r n about at J. Century
of La biologie cellulaire, P., 1884; W i 1 s o n E. B. The cell in development and inheritance, N. Y., 1896.
The managements, the main Trudie, the reference media — And in c y N And. The item and III and x - l and m about in V. A. Ultrastructural bases of pathology of a cell, M., 1979; Alexandrov V. Ya. Reaktivnost of cells and proteins, L., 1985; The East To. and Sumner of E. Hromosom of an eukaryotic cell, the lane with English, M., 1981; Ford
sky V. Ya. and Uryvayeva I. V., Cellular polyploidyI, Proliferation and differentiation, M., 1981;
To Velsh. and Shtorkhf. Introduction to cytology and histology of animals, the lane with it., M., 1976; Zavarzin A. A. Fundamentals of private cytology and comparative histology of metazoans, JI., 1976; Zavarzin A. A. and Harazo-v and A. D. Fundamentals of the general cytology, L., 1982, bibliogr.; Zakharov A. F. Chromosomes of the person, M., 1977; about N e, Chromosomes of the person, the Atlas, M., 1982; Zelenin And, V., A. A. Kushch and Ponds-with to and y I. A. The reconstructed cell, M., 1982; Zengbushp. Molecular and cellular biology, the lane with it., t. 1 — 3, M., 1982; To and r m y sh e in and V. Ya. Pora
a zheniye of cells at viral infections, M., 1981; Neyfakh. And. and Timofeeva M. Ya. Problems of regulation in molecular biology of development, M., 1978; R and y-to about in I. B. Yadro of protozoa, L., 1978; Ringertsn. and River Sevidzh. Hybrid cells, the lane with English, M., 1979; Rolan Zh.-K., Seloshia. iselosh of. The atlas on cytobiology, the lane with fr., M., 1978; With about l about in e in V. D., Hesin I, E. and Bykovsky And. F, Sketches on virus cytopathology, M., 1979; Ham A. and Cormac D. Histology, the lane with English, t. 1, p. 2, M., 1982; H e N of c about in Yu. S. General cytology, M., 1984; E f r at with with and B. Hybridization of somatic cells, the lane with English, M., 1976; Grundlagen der Cytolo-gie, hrsg. v. G. C. Hirch u. a., Jena, 1973.
Periodicals — Cytology, D., since 1959; Cytology and genetics, Kiev, since 1965; Acta Cytologica, St Louis, since 1957; Acta Histochemica and Cytochemica, Kyoto, since 1960; Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology, N. Y., since 1971; Analytical and Quantitative Cytology, St Louis, since 1979; Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, Austin, since 1916; Caryologia, Firenze, since 1948; Cell, Cambridge, since 1974; Cellule, Bruxelle, since 1884; Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, Basel, since 1962; Folia Histochemica et, Cytochemica, Warszawa, since 1963; International Review of Cytology, N. Y., since 1952; Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, N. Y., since 1953. See also bibliogr. to St. Cell.
Ya. E. Hesinonim