TsITOHYMIYa (Greek kytos a receptacle, here — a cell + chemistry) — the section of cytology studying structure and distribution of chemicals in a cell and its structures and also exchange processes and chemical changes which are the cornerstone of cell activity. On the purposes and tasks the cytochemistry is close to biochemistry (see) and molecular biology (see), and by a technique of researches is in many respects similar to a histochemistry (see).
As science of C. it began to develop in the second quarter of 20 century when there were methods of selective identification DNKIRNK — reaction of Feyl-gena, UF-cytophotometry, coloring nucleinic to - t mix of imperial green and pyronin (see. Deoxyribonucleic acid, RNA), and also methods of definition of activity of various enzymes in a cell. For the present stage of development of C. wide use of the quantitative methods of a research allowing to reveal the content of separate substances in a cell and its structures is characteristic (see. Cytochemical methods of a research). The important place among them is taken cytophotometry (see) and the flowing tsitometriya, edges allows to obtain information on necessary parameters of extensive cell populations with a huge speed (to 5 — 10 thousand cells in
1 sec.). Besides, by means of a tsitometriya it is possible to allocate the cells which are characterized by a certain property, napr with the content of DNA or existence of this or that membrane antigen further to carry out special biochemical or morfol. analysis of these cells. Widely uses modern C. radio isotope (see the Autoradiography) and luminescent methods (see. Luminescent microscopy; Luminescence, methods of the analysis and devices, t. 15, additional materials), methods of a submicroscopy (see) and immunochemistry (see).
C. the fundamental contribution in sovr belongs. ideas of a structure and function of a cell (see). In recent years the tendency to use of cytochemical methods of a research for the solution of various practical problems of medicine was outlined, including for diagnosis of malignant new growths (on the basis of the tumor cells given about polyploidy, and also hypersensitivity of chromatin of their kernels to acid hydrolysis in Feylgen's reaction), for a research of properties of lymphocytes of blood, to-rye change at various diseases (schizophrenia, a Down syndrome, etc.).
At the International union scientific about-in the Committee on a histochemistry and cytochemistry is created, tasks to-rogo include the organization of the scientific congresses. The I International congress on a histochemistry and cytochemistry took place in 1960 in Paris, II — in 1964 in Frankfurt am Main, III — in 1968 in New York, IV — in 1972 in Kyoto, V — in 1976 in Bucharest, VI — in 1980 in Brighton, VII — in 1984 in Helsinki.
See also Cytology.
of W. Ja. Tro Fick of a cell, M., 1966; Introduction to quantitative cytochemistry, the lane with English, under the editorship of V. Ya. Brodsky and N. I. Polyakov, M., 1969; Heykhou F. G. D highways and Kvaglino D. Hematologic cytochemistry, the lane with English, M., 1983; With a s-persson T. Cell growth and cell function, N. Y., 1950; Introduction to quantitative cytochemistry, ed. by G. L. Wied, v. 1—2, N. Y. — L., 1970;
Lae-rum O. D. a. Farsund T. Clinical application of flow cytometry, Cytometry, v. 2, p. 1, 1981, bibliogr.;
Zele nin A. Y. Current problems of quantitative chromatin cytochemistry, Acta histochem., suppl., p. 179, 1982. See also bibliogr. to St. Cytology.
A. V. Zelenin.