From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CYST (grech, kystis a bubble) — the pathological cavity in fabrics or bodies having a wall and contents. From the term «cyst» there are adjectives «cystic», «cystous», used when this or that patol, change is followed by education To.

Size K., contents and a structure of a wall happen various depending on the mechanism and prescription of education, localization etc. Distinguish true To. and false (pseudocysts): true are covered by an epithelium or are more rare an endothelium, false have no special vystilka. To. happen acquired and inborn, i.e. arising at vicious formation of fabrics and bodies.

On the mechanism of education distinguish To. retentsionny, ramolitsionny, parasitic, traumatic, dizontogenetichesky, tumoral.

Retentsionny cysts, as a rule, acquired, meet in various ferruterous and secretory bodies and are a consequence of difficulty or complete cessation of outflow of a secret from gland owing to obstruction of a channel a concrement, a stopper from the condensed secret, a prelum of a channel a tumor or a hem. A secret, collecting in a channel or in a ferruterous segment, stretches them, forming gradually increasing cavity with grease, mucous, watery and other contents. Are that To. sebaceous, salivary, mammary glands, follicular To. ovaries, pancreatic, prostatic glands, etc. A wall, retentsionny To. it is covered by the flattened epithelium of gland or its channel. At pre-natal atresias of channels of glands develop inborn retentsionny To.

Ramolitsionny cysts (To. from a softening) are formed in compact fabric at its focal necrosis (at hemorrhage, an inflammation, a necrosis, a heart attack) and the subsequent softening, fluidifying and a resorption of dead substrate. A wall such To. it is formed by fabric of that body, in Krom it is localized, but further can be replaced with connecting fabric, and in a brain of gliozny. Ramolitsionnye K. is found in head, it is rare in a spinal cord, in tumors (e.g., a glioma, fibroma). Treat ramolitsionny To. a yellow body of ovaries, root intra pulpal tooth To. (see. Odontocele ), bone To. at osteoblastoclastomas, a fibrous osteitis.

Parasitic cysts represent a vesical larval stage (Finns) of tape-worms. Treat them echinococcal To., or an echinococcus (see. Echinococcosis ), and a cysticercus (see. Cysticercosis ).

Traumatic cysts result from the intravital shift of epithelial fabrics. Treat them traumatic epithelial To. fingers and palms owing to implementation of an epithelial cover in the subject fabric and the subsequent accumulation of a secret in the formed epithelial sack. A similar origin traumatic epithelial To. an iris of the eye of an eye, and also traumatic To. pancreas. Consider that some bone To. also traumatic origin.

Fig. 1. Macrodrug of an inborn polycystic kidney (on the right a kidney in a section, shooters specified cavities of cysts).
Fig. 2. A frontal section of a polycystic liver (shooters specified cavities of cysts).

Dizontogenetichesky cysts most often inborn; they represent cystic transformation sometimes of the remaining embryonal channels and cracks. In other cases To. arise in the fabrics displaced during the formation of an embryo, is more often in ferruterous. Carry to dizontogenetichesky branchyogenic cysts (see) from the remained branchial apertures, To. from the remains of the zheltochnokishechny course (enterokistoma); To. a prostate arise in connection with disturbance of formation of paramesonephrotic channels or fusion of outlet opening of vesiculae prostaticae. To arisen as a malformation syringocystadenomas and siringoepitelioma — a malformation of sweat glands belong, parovarian cysts (see), endometrial To. ovaries (so-called chocolate), dermoid To., multiple cysts of kidneys, liver (fig. 1 and 2), bronchial tubes, etc. Sometimes owing to disturbance of development of an organism simultaneous education inborn is noted To. pancreas, liver, kidneys, lungs, ovaries and c. N of page.

Tumoral cysts arise when the growing fabric of a tumor creates single-chamber, multichamber cavities are more often (e.g., a multichamber cranyopharyngioma). Such To. are quite often formed in ferruterous tumors (cystous adenoma of sialadens, a cystous lymphangioma, a cystous ameloblastoma). Tumoral To. happen single or multiple, and if in adenoma develops To., it call kistadenomy, in a lymphangioma — a cystous lymphangioma; sometimes the tumor is just designated as a cystoma or in cases of many To. as polycystoma of ovaries.

An intermediate position between To., developing as a malformation, and tumoral To. borrow To., relating to to teratoblastomas (see). Besides, it must be kept in mind that, e.g., epidermoid cysts (sy.) there can be retentsionny, traumatic, and some epidermoid To. are considered as malformations and explain their emergence with an otshnurovka of epidermis In an embryogenesis (see. Dermoid ), as they quite often are found in a zone of embryonal lines of a smykaniye and are combined with other malformations.

Clinical manifestations To. in many respects localizations, sizes, and also character of the arising complications (suppuration, a gap, a malignancy) depend on type. Small To. can not give symptoms. When To. creates inconveniences, causes painful feelings, breaks functions of body or threatens with any complication, the isolated removal is made To. or together with body (a part of body), in Krom it is.

Bibliography: Apatenko A. K. Epithelial tumors and malformations of skin, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Belyaev A. A. and Shindyaykin A. P. Ruptures of adventitious cysts of a pancreas, Surgery, No. 7, page 38, 1976; Vinogradova T. P. Tumors of bones, M., 1973; L. P. Sparrows itimofeev M. F. Pseudocysts of a pancreas, Rubbed. arkh., t. 46, No. 2, page 144, 1974; Golovin D. I. Atlas of tumors of the person, L., 1975; About l-bert 3. Century and Lavnikova G. A. Tumors and cysts of a mediastinum, M., 1965; Danilov M. V. ikaltayev K. K. Cysts of a pancreas (pathogeny, diagnosis, treatment), Owls. medical, No. 5, page 39, 1972; Zadorozhny I. B. Morphology of an inborn polycystosis of kidneys, Doctor, business, No. 2, page 48, 1970; P y-t of e of l A. Ya. O cystous gemmations and their classification, Urol, and nefrol., No. 1, page 3, 1975; The Guide to pulmonary surgery, under the editorship of I. S. Kolesnikov, L., 1969; The management on patologoanatomi-to chesky diagnosis of tumors of the Person, under the editorship of N. A. Krayevsky and A. V. Smol-yannikova, M., 1976; - A Ibex tini A. Histologische Geschwulstdiagnostik, Stuttgart., 1974.

E. D. Savchenko.