CYPRUS, the Republic of Cyprus — the state on the island of Cyprus in east part of the Mediterranean Sea. The area is 9251 km 2 . Population of 640 thousand people (1976). The capital — Nicosia (with suburbs of 120 thousand people; 1974). Administrative division: 6 districts. Ofits. languages — Greek and Turkish.
To. — republic. The head of state — the president elected by the Greek community; the deputy head of state is the vice-president elected by the Turkish community. The legislature belongs to unicameral parliament — the House of Representatives, executive — to the president and the vice-president who appoint the Council of ministers headed by the president.
In the country the mountainous terrain prevails. The woods borrow apprx. 20% of the territory. Climate — Mediterranean. To. preferential agrarian country. Agriculture gives apprx. 18% of gross national product. The main pages - x. cultures: wheat, barley, citrus, grapes. For years of independence (since 1960) gross national product doubled. The national income for 1960 — 1970 increased for 85%, however an antigovernmental putsch (summer of 1974) and the events which followed it caused serious damage to economy: industrial production (extraction of copper ore, iron, chromites, asbestos, gypsum) was cut by half.
Apprx. 78% of the population — Greeks, apprx. 18% — Turks, the others — Armenians, etc. The natural movement of the population in 1970 — 1975, on ofitsa. to the data published in prod. WHO, it was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 22,2; general mortality 6,8; natural increase 15,4. Child mortality on 1000 live-born 29,2 (1975). Main reasons for death (1972): cardiovascular diseases, malignant new growths, diabetes and traumatism which tend to growth. For years of independence incidence of intestinal infections is considerably reduced. In 1975 flu, scarlet fever, whooping cough most often were registered. From parasitic diseases the Echinococcosis is most widespread. Rather wide spread occurance is characteristic thalassemias (see) — apprx. 14% of the population are carriers of a mutant gene, on 1000 live-born about 5 cases of this disease are registered.
The management of health care is centralized and is carried out min.-vom health care. In the country there is no nation-wide system of social insurance. Public servants, including military personnel and members of their families, receive free medical aid, and the population with the small income — at the lowered prices. Besides, some enterprises and labor unions also represent medical aid by the worker and employee free of charge. The hospital help the population To. would receive in which on To. St. 130 (the bed fund zhit 3537 beds, i.e. 5,7 beds for 1000.), from them 57,4% of beds in state-tsakh (1973). Extra hospital help is given in 6 polyclinic departments of BC, one out-patient clinic and 16 centers of health care (1972) which function in rural areas and have several beds necessary for acceptance of normal childbirth and hospitalization of the patients having not serious illness. The help to women and children appears in 174 women's and children's consultations and, besides, in the centers for health protection of children at municipalities. In the country is available 43 stomatol, policlinics and 3 mobile dental surgery out-patient clinics, 2 psychiatric, 1 tubercular and 1 leprose clinics (1972). The name and content of work of healthcare institutions To. not fully correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities, abroad ). The urban and country people are provided with high-quality mains water.
In 1973 on To. 527 doctors worked (1 doctor for 1195 zhit.), from which 155 172 stomatologists, 242 druggists, 99 midwifes and 351 nurses were in public service. The highest medical educational institutions on To. no. Training of doctors is carried out abroad. Sisterly and obstetric schools let out a year 15 nurses, 71 assistants to the nurse and 14 midwifes (1972).
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 302, Geneva, WHO, 1977; World Health Statistics Annual 1971, v. 3, Geneva, 1975; World Health Statistics Annual 1972, v. 1, Geneva, 1975.
I. I. Sluchevsky.