From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CYBERNETICS (grech, kybernetike management skill) — science about management and processing of information in any systems (in groups of people, in biological, technical, economic and other systems). Formation To. as sciences reflected the objective fact of a community of laws and management processes, in whatever systems these processes proceeded. Studied To. systems shall have ability to perceive, store and process information, using it for regulation and management. The term «cybernetics» was offered by an amer. the mathematician N. Wiener in 1948, it the first in rather finished look formulated her ideas. These ideas arose on the basis of comprehension and synthesis of the known analogies between the objects of wildlife and artificial objects created by the person long ago. In particular, I. P. Pavlov wrote: «The person is, of course, system (speaking more roughly — the car), as well as any another in the nature, submitting to laws, inevitable and uniform for all nature, but system, in the horizon of our modern scientific vision, only on the highest self-regulation. We know variously self-regulating cars between products of human hands already enough. From this point of view, a method of studying of system of the person the same, as well as any other system; decomposition on parts, studying of value of each part, studying of communication of parts, studying of ratios with the environment and, eventually, understanding, on the basis of all this its general work and management of it, if it in means of the person...» Among creators of cybernetics there were scientists of various specialties — mathematicians, engineers, physicists, physiologists, biologists, doctors. The purpose, edges was pursued during creation To., consisted in attempt to depart in the analysis and synthesis of problems of management from narrow specialization of disciplines that inevitably accompanies the increasing knowledge connected with the aspiration to get as it is possible more deeply in an essence of the studied phenomena. At the same time emergence To. promoted combination of knowledge and methods of separate sciences and scientific disciplines uniform methodology for studying of management processes, knowledge of laws of functioning of complex systems, creation on this base of high-perfect managing systems and the choice of a method of optimum control. To. aims to look at these phenomena from the general metodol, positions to use the results, known in one fields of science, and often and widely used, in others. It shall be promoted by understanding of the general laws of management and communication, uniform system of the concepts and terms connected with problems of management. Methods of cybernetics, in particular, can help with obtaining scientific results on joints of sciences. Thus, detection of the main patterns inherent in management processes and communication, a possibility of their representation in a uniform form irrespective of objects where they proceed, creation of uniform methodology for studying of systems and management processes and, at last, creation on this basis of a condition for collaboration of scientific most different specialties — here the main objectives To. as sciences.

One of the basic concepts To. «information» is. Storage, transfer and transformation of information necessary for management happens in all control systems. Laws of existence and transformation of information are objective. Substantially definition of these laws, their exact description, development of methods of transformation and information transfer make contents To., what found reflection in definition of cybernetics as sciences. Characteristic for sovr, conditions large volumes of information processed in control systems caused need of wide use of methods of its automatic processing. On their basis are under construction information and information retrieval systems (see), the managements which are an important element of many complex systems. By means of similar systems obtain information in the processed look, the most convenient for the subsequent use. In medicine information systems on the basis of the COMPUTER would gain distribution in large, drugstores, in bodies of health care. An example of pretreatment of information, to the necessary doctor, systems of machine diagnosis can serve (see. Diagnosis machine ).

It is important to note that To. studies management processes and information processes in systems irrespective of their power providing or design features of real objects. To. widely uses methods and achievements of a number of sciences and scientific disciplines — theories automatic regulations (see), theories of games (see. Modelling ), physiology (see), geneticists (see) etc. At the same time have special value the theory of management (see. Management ) and the theory of information (see. Information theory ). The methods used in To., based on use of mathematics, computer facilities, the theory of management, the theory of information, it is possible to call cybernetic methods briefly.

The laws of management studied To., concern technical, biol., economic and other systems. Therefore the formulation of the main ideas To. attracted interest of representatives of the most various sciences and at the same time, having generated a set of discussions, caused a number of objections, especially in representatives of humanitarian disciplines. It was promoted by a number of the illegal statements which followed after the first messages on an essence To., and also incorrect use of such concepts as «cybernetics», «cybernetic methods», «cybernetic cars», «cybernetic systems» etc. At the same time that objectively useful that is born in itself by science about the general patterns of management and processing of information, and also the practical results received To., provided it recognition and wide use of its theory and methods in various fields of science and technology. Development of methods K. is one of conditions of successful implementation sovr, technical means and methods of management in any branches of science and technicians (management of the enterprises, social and economic, medical, medico-technical and other systems). In medical practice, e.g., expediency of use of methods K. arises at problem solving of an intensive care, problems of life support of an organism in extreme conditions, during the designing and use of artificial organs and systems etc. Use of methods K. allows biologists, physiologists and doctors to consider in a new way biol, objects, with to-rymi they work. Engineers, in turn, comparing the systems created by them to natural systems of similar appointment, get new perspectives for the creativity. Respectively such sections of the general cybernetics as medical cybernetics, technical cybernetics, economic cybernetics, biological cybernetics gained distribution, the cut, in turn, is a part neurocybernetics, etc.

Speaking about management, always allocate object of management, the state or behavior to-rogo need to be managed, and the purpose of management, i.e. a desirable condition or a behavior pattern of an object of management. Appropriate management requires information both on the purpose of management, and on discrepancy of the valid condition of an object of management with the desirable. On the basis of processing of this information the corresponding managing influences which implementation shall bring an object to a necessary state are developed. Processes of obtaining information on an object, its processings, findings of managing influences and ensuring their implementation make a basis of management process. Therefore, management is the purposeful process connected with the choice of the best action, the way, method, tactics and strategy leading to achievement of the goal in the best way from the point of view of the established criterion. Therefore the problem of establishment (choice) of criterion of management is one of central in K. Zadachey of managing system processing of information on an object, elaboration of managing influences and ensuring their implementation is. Object of management together with managing system form a control system. These regulations on management are fair for objects of any nature — both natural, and artificial, created by the person. At the solution of the corresponding problem K. first of all it is necessary to study object of management, to imagine its interior, structure, characteristics. It is necessary to make the corresponding description of an object of management — to construct its model (see. Modelling ). Essentially there are two possibilities of obtaining the description of objects — analytical and experimental. At analytical approach the model of an object turns out physical as a result of mathematical formalization of specific manifestations. laws, according to-rymi the body of interest functions. In some cases obtaining the mathematical description of this or that object or phenomenon already is scientific achievement. Such models are widely used in To., and their importance such is that the mathematical device and methods used at the same time sometimes allocate in the independent section K. — mathematical cybernetics.

As a rule, the mathematical description establishing connection between entrance and output variable objects of management, i.e. the main sizes of quantitative expression of impact on an object and the sizes which are quantitative characteristics of reaction of an object to these influences is necessary for management. Such approach often is called method of «a black box». However its shortcoming is that the researcher at creation of model of an object not completely uses the knowledge of structure and internal features of an object. More perfect is the so-called method of space of states considering the relationship existing between the entrance and output signals and internal variables describing a condition of system. Often receiving mathematical model by analytical methods is impossible in view of exclusive complexity of an object of a research, and such model manages to be constructed only experimentally, in particular by methods identifications (see).

Great value in honey. To. gets modeling of various systems of a human body functioning normal or pathologies and also modeling of process of treatment. At the same time use of mathematical models in a wedge, medicine has two main objectives: cognitive — for deeper studying and understanding of processes in an organism and purely practical — for calculation of quantitative changes in an organism (e.g., forecasting of a course of diseases and their treatment on the basis of the analysis of a large number of the signs characteristic of this or that disease).

Wide use of mathematical models of the managed systems, and including in medicine, became possible thanks to emergence of the COMPUTER (see. Electronic computer ), what is explained by complexity of those systems, with to-rymi K. Isklyuchitelno deals wide use of the COMPUTER is connected also with a huge number of information, to-ruyu it is necessary to overwork for understanding of the processes happening in the studied systems and operational elaboration of the managing influences bringing object of management to the set state.

In technical appendices K. methods of creation of the adaptive, self-adjusted and self-training devices and systems are developed. The necessity in such devices is caused by the fact that sovr, complex systems of management work in the most various conditions. Not always it is possible to receive models of the managed objects. External impacts on them often not only are not known, but it is impossible to determine by their various reasons in advance. In other words, managing systems work in the conditions of bigger or smaller initial uncertainty. In these conditions the way out is looked for on the way of creation of the adaptive and studying devices which for reduction of initial uncertainty use information obtained in management process. Studying of adaptive properties of live organisms, their learning capabilities helps with creation of this sort of technical devices. Consequence of development of the ideas of the technical appendix K. the new engineering science was — bionics (see), studying managing systems and sensitive bodies of live organisms for the purpose of use of the principles which are the cornerstone of their functioning during creation of new technical devices.

See also Cybernetics medical .

Bibliography: Afanasyev B. G. Scientific management of society, M., 1973; Balanter B. I. Probabilistic models in physiology, to the analysis of mechanisms of functioning of physiological systems and their disturbances, M., 1977, bibliogr.; Berg A. I. Cybernetics — science about optimum control, M. — L., 1964; Biological cybernetics, under the editorship of A. B. Kogan, M., 1977; Winer N. Cybernetics and society, the lane with English, M., 1958; it, Cybernetics or management and communication in an animal and the car, the lane with English, M., 1968; Poletayev I. A. Signal, M., 1958, bibliogr.; Fitsner L. N. Biological search engines, M., 1977, bibliogr.

O. I. Aven.