CUVIE George

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CUVIE George (Cuvier Georges Leopold Chretien Frederic Dagobert, 1769 — 1832) — the French scientist and the paleontologist, professor (1800), the member of the Parisian academy of Sciences (1795) and French academy (1818).

KYuVE Georges

After the termination in 1788. Carolinian academy in Stuttgart began to go in for natural sciences. In 1794 it was invited to Paris by the lecturer in the Central Pantheon school, along with 1795 gave lectures on a comparative anatomy in the Royal botanic garden (Jardin des Plantes).

Proceeding from features of a structure of a nervous system, Zh. Kyuvye in 1812 formulated the doctrine about 4 «branches» (types) of the organization of animals whom he divided on «vertebral», «jointed», «spineless» and «radiant». Between them, however, he did not recognize any bonds and transitions. Characterizing each type, Zh. Kyuvye gave the description of the classes and groups relating to them which it divided into families and types. Having investigated big actual material in the course of studying of a comparative anatomy of vertebrata, it in detail described a structure of separate bodies. Zh. Kyuvye noted a harmonious combination of bodies among themselves and communication between their function and a structure, the first formulated the doctrine about correlations and specified that each organism forms one continuous whole, in Krom one parts cannot change without all other parts did not undergo change. It gave the chance by one separate part to judge a structure of whole. The law of correlation of parts played a big role in development of paleontology. On its basis Zh. Kyuvye offered a reconstruction method of fossil animals on the remains of a skeleton. Works on a research of fossil animals it recreated an overall picture of the become extinct world (from plaster stone quarries of the Montmartre hill) and depicted process of gradual improvement of a structure from more ancient forms to the latest. Upholding religious ideas of creation and an invariance of types, Zh. Kyuvye for an explanation of change of the fauna and flora observed in consecutive geological layers put forward catastrophism, or cataclysms. According to its theory of accident were not universal, but local and settling by new organisms happened by migration of animals. Zh. Kyuvye completely rejected the doctrine Zh. Lamarck about variability of wildlife and Geoffroi St E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire's position about unity of the organization of animals. Despite an inaccuracy of theoretical conclusions of Zh. Kyuvye about development of wildlife, the collected and carefully studied by it actual material on zoology, a comparative anatomy and paleontology, and also implementation of new methods of a research promoted development of theory of evolution.

Works: Legons d’anatomie comparee, t. 1—5, P., 1801 — 1805;& Sur un nouveau rapprochement etablir entre les classes qui compo-sent le of r£gne animal, Annales du museum i’Histoire Naturelle, t. 19, 1812; Recherches sur les ossements fossiles oh l’on reta-l) lit les caracteres de plusieurs animaux dont Jes revolutions du globe ont detruit les espe-ces, t. 1—5, P., 1821 — 1824; Le regne animal distribue d'apres son organization pour servir de base a l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction k l'anatomie com-paree, t. 1—20, P., 1836 — 1849; Histoire des sciences naturelles, t. 1—5, P., 1841 — 1845; The Reasoning on revolutions on the surface of the globe, lane with fr., M. — L., 1937.

Bibliography: Kanayev K. I. Georges Kyuvye (1769 — 1832), L., 1976, bibliogr.