From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CUSHING Harvey (Cushing Harvey Williams, 1869 — 1939 — the American neurosurgeon, the member of the American academy of Sciences (1914) and New York medical academy (1926).


In 1891 left medical college Yale un-that, then would be an intern in central the State of Massachusetts. In 1895 received degree of the doctor of medicine.

It was improved at the most visible surgeons of the USA, then in Switzerland at T. Kokher and in England at Ch. Cher of a ringtone. Since 1910 professional. Harvard un-that. In World War I of 1914 — 1918 was at the front in France, there was a hl. neurosurgeon amer. forwarding case.

After the end of war the prof. of neurology Yale un-that worked in Harvard un-those, and since 1933. X. Cushing — one of founders of modern neurosurgery, the founder of large neurosurgical school. It published St. 315 scientific works, including 14 monographs which cover practically all problems of surgery of a brain and are closely connected with fiziol, researches of c. N of page. Problem of an injury of c. in N of page was one of the main directions in its scientific work. In «Notes about the getting wounds of a brain» (1918) X. Cushing generalized the experience as the field neurosurgeon, offered a number of operational receptions, techniques, organizational actions new for those times, in particular it introduced a X-ray analysis of a skull, use of antiseptic agents, removal of the foreign bodys which are deeply located in a brain in practice of diagnosis and treatment of wounds of a brain for the first time that allowed it to lower by 50% a lethality at fighting wounds of a brain.

In work «About regulatory mechanisms of the vasculomotor center controlling blood pressure at a compression of a brain» (1901) he described the mechanism of raising of the ABP and proved that increase in intracranial pressure leads to compensatory increase in vascular pressure (Cushing's reflex).

X. Cushing developed a number of new operational neurosurgical methods: temporal decompression (1905), approach to a back cranial pole, etc. A number of works, including 3 monographs, he devoted to physiology and surgical treatment patol, the processes developing in a hypophysis and a hypothalamus; in details described a hiazmalny syndrome at tumors of pituitary area (1929) and a wedge, a syndrome at basphilic adenomas of a hypophysis (see. Itsenko — Cushing a disease ), and also showed a role of a diencephalon in a pathogeny of round ulcers.

To problems of morphology, clinic, diagnosis and surgical treatment of tumors of a brain of X. Cushing devoted St. 150 scientific works, including 8 monographs. Together with Bailey (P. Bailey) he developed the first evidence-based classification of tumors of a brain, edges is a basis of all sovr, classifications. He devoted the separate monograph (1932) to the analysis of 2000 verified observations of intracranial tumors. His merit was development and deployment in practice of an electrosurgical method which sharply expanded a possibility of removal of tumors of a brain. It published also the monograph about U. Osler's life.

X. Cushing was the president of a row an amer. scientific about-in, the honorary member of many foreign scientific about - century.

Works: The hypophysis cerebri, Clinical aspects of hyperpituitarism and of hypopituitarism, J. Amer. med. Ass., v. 53, p. 249, 1909; Tumors of the nervus acusticus and the syndrome of the cerebellopontile angle, Philadelphia — L., 1917; A classification of the tumors of the glioma group on a histogenetic basis with a correlated study of prognosis, Philadelphia a. o., 1926 (sovm, with Bailey P.); Experiences with the cerebellar astrocytomas, Surg. Gynec. Obstet., v. 52, p. 129, 1931; Intracranial tumors, Springfield, 1932; Peptic ulcers and the interbrain, Surg. Gynec. Obstet., v. 55, p. 1, 1932; Meningiomas, Their classification, regional behavior, life history, and surgical end results, Springfield — Baltimore, 1938 (sovm, with Eisenhardt L.).

Bibliography: Arutyunov A. I. and Kandel E. I. Garvey Cushing (To the 100 anniversary since birth), Vopr, neyrokhir., No. 6, page 57, 1969; Bailey P. Harvey William Cushing, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.), v. 42, p. 1140, 1939; Fulton J. F. Harvey Cushing, biography, Springfield, 1946.

E. I. Kandel.