CURIE Pierre

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CURIE Pierre (Curie Pierre, 1859 — 1906) — the French physicist, professor (1904), the member of the French academy (1905), the Nobel Prize laureate (1903).

CURIE Pierre

In 1877 ended Parisian un-t, then worked as the assistant in it un-those. Since 1883 taught at School of industrial physics and chemistry in Paris. In 1895 protected dokt, the thesis about properties of steam - ferro-and diamagnetic bodies. Since 1904 professional. Parisian un-that.

The main works of P. P. J. Curie are devoted to problems of physics of crystals, magnetism, and also a research of the phenomena of natural radioactivity. In 1880 he together with the brother P. J. Curie found and investigated the phenomena of piezoelectricity in crystals, and also performed a number of works on studying of laws of symmetry in crystals. In 1894 it formulated the postulate allowing to define symmetry of the crystal which is under any external (mechanical, electric, etc.) influence, so-called principle of Curie. He designed several devices, including piezoquartz, the electrometer with piezoquartz, aperiodic precision scales, etc. Researches of the magnetic phenomena allowed it to establish dependence of a magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bodies on absolute temperature (the so-called law of Curie) in 1895. At the same time P. Curie found special temperature, the cut ferromagnetic materials is higher turn in paramagnetic (so-called temperature, or a point, Curie). These works of P. Curie were a noticeable contribution to development sovr, a crystal physics, crystal optics, sciences about magnetism.

Soon after discovery of the radioactivity of uranium salts by A. Bekkerel (1896) P. Curie together with the wife M. Sclodovscaia-Curie started studying of the phenomena of radioactivity. Spouses Curie established that radioactive beams cause changes in cells of live organisms. They proved independence of process of radioactive decay of environmental conditions. In 1898 by them new chemical elements — polonium and radium were opened, the complex structure of radiation of radium is established, the phenomenon of coloring of porcelain and glass under the influence of radoactive radiation is revealed. In 1903 for discovery of radium and the contribution made in studying of radioactivity P. Curie together with M. Sclodovsca-Curie and A. Bekkerel was conferred the Nobel Prize on physics.

Works: Oeuvres, R., 1908 (the Russian lane, M. — L., 1966).

Bibliography: Hoffman U. V. Pierre Curie is an outstanding French physicist (To the 50 anniversary from the date of death), Kiev, 1956; Curie M. Pierre Curie, the lane with fr., M., 1968; Shpolsky E. V. Life and Pierre Curie (1859 — 1906) activity, Usp. physical. sciences, t. 58, century 4, page 581, 1956.

L. A. Stankievich.