CURARE (Curare; synonym Curara, Ourari, Urari, Woorara) — collective name of mioparalitichesky poisons. Indians of South America used To. as poison for production of the poisoned arrows. Raw materials for receiving To. different types of plants of Chondodendron and Strychnos are.
The mechanism of action To. it was established in the middle of 19 century by K. Bernard and E. V. Pelikan who showed that caused To. muscle relaxation is connected with its blocking influence on momentum transfer from motor nerves on cross-striped muscles.
Earlier depending on a way of packaging allocated the following versions To.: to a tubokurara (in bamboo tubes), pumpkin To. (in vessels from pumpkins), pottery To. (in clay pots). This division lost sense since are known structure of alkaloids K. and sources of their receiving.
From bark of the plants stated above the considerable number of individual alkaloids is allocated, many of which have mioparalitichesky activity. One of the main alkaloids K. is tubocurarine (see), received from Chondodendron tomentosum bark. From Strychnos toxifera bark S-curarinum and some other alkaloids are allocated S-toksiferii, S-digidrotoksiferin.
In 1935 King (N. of King) established structure of tubocurarine, edges was specified in 1970. In 1958 P. Karrer and coauthors defined structure S-toksiferina. It was shown that the main alkaloids K. with the expressed mioparalitichesky action have two cationic centers presented by quarternary nitrogen atoms in the structure.
In anesthesiology practice To. it was for the first time used for a relaxation of muscles in 1942 by Griffith (N. K. Griffith) and Johnson (G. E. Johnson). Further began to apply the purified alkaloid K. — tubocurarine, and also others kurarepodobny substances (see), received in the synthetic way or from vegetable raw materials.
Bibliography: Harkevich D. A. Pharmacology of kurarepodobny means, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Ms of Intyre A. R. Curare, its history, nature, and clinical use, Chicago, 1947; Neuromuscular blocking and stimulating agents, ed. bv J. Cheymol, v. 1 — 2, Oxford — N.Y., 1972.
D. A. Harkevich.