CROSS CIRCULATION — operational connection of blood vessels of two organisms for providing at them the general blood circulation. To a method P. to. resort for rapprochement of the donor with the recipient in the immunobiological relation at operative measures, in particular on heart, and also in experiments on organ transplantation.
In 1890 L. Fredericq the first applied P. to., having connected carotid arteries of two animals by means of cannulas. In 1907 A. A. Bogdanov showed a possibility of hemotransfusion from one person to another and back by double connection of their blood vessels. Geymans (J. - F. Heymans) and K. Gey-maks (1940) considerably improved a method P. to. also used it during the carrying out many researches, in particular during the studying of activity of a respiratory center.
O. S. Glozman and A. P. Kasatkina (1950) instead of carotid arteries and internal veins connected femoral arteries and veins. They used P. to. as the method of treatment at poisoning with various poisons was also proved that in nek-ry cases by connection of vessels of the poisoned organism with healthy by means of P. to. can save life fatally poisoned animal without essential harm for healthy.
In 1952 Mr. Sautuorti Pearce (J. Southworth, Pearse) P. suggested to use to. at the endocardiac operative measures which are followed by switching off of the left half of heart. In 1955, Lillikhey (Page W. Lillihei) applied P. to. during heart operation at the child; the second partner of P. to. at the same time there was a father of the child. V. P. Demikhov in experiments on dogs tried to create in two connected organisms uniform blood circulation due to activity of one heart. At the same time conditions for a uniform metabolism were created; besides, it was easier to control and watch a condition of both connected partners.
In 1956 P. Demikhov put a number of experiments on creation of other scheme P. to. Sewing together of vessels was made in the field of outer surfaces of an upper third of back extremities. The central end of a femoral artery of one dog was sewed with the peripheral end of a femoral artery of the second. Applied two pieces from carotid arteries of the same animals to lengthening of the connected ends of femoral vessels. At this way of connection blood from a femoral artery of the first dog came to a hinder leg of the second, and from there — to the general circle of blood circulation of the second; blood from a femoral artery of the second dog came to a hinder leg of the first and such way — to its circle of blood circulation.
One of experiments on such scheme P. to. proceeded within 10 days in spite of the fact that even before operation incompatibility of blood of experimental animals was established. Thereby P.'s possibility was shown to. at the higher organisms of one look for a long time. It opens new, ampler opportunities for P.'s use to. in experimental biology and medicine.
See also Parabionts .
Bibliography: Geymans To. and Kordye D. A respiratory center, the lane with fr., M. — JI., 1940; Of l about z-m and O. S. N and the Killer whale of N and A. P. Full substitution and exchange hemotransfusion as methods of experimental therapy, M., 1950; Demikhov V. P. Change of vitals in an experiment, M., 1960; Shaksel Yu. Studying of parabionts, Dokl. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, it is new. it is gray., t. 29, No. 8-9, with, 637, 1940; Enderlen u. In about r s t, Beit-rage zur Gef asschirurgie und zur Organtrans-plantation, Munch, med. Wschr., S. 1865, 1910; Lillehei C. W. a. o. The direct-vision intracardiac correction of congenital anomalies by controlled cross circulation, Surgery, v. 38, p. 11, 1955; Marcus E., Wong S. N. T. a. Lui-sada A. A. Homologous heart grafts, Arch. Surg., v. 66, p. 179, 1953; S t e-henson K. L. Present status of parabiosis as related to skin transplantation, Plast. reconstr. Surg., v. 12, p. 335, D953.
V. G. Agafonov.