CRIMEAN RESORTS - group of the climatic and klimatobalneogryazevy resorts and resort (medical) areas located in the Crimea, generally in its coastal strip. The Crimean peninsula occupies the space of 26 thousand km 2 ; on 3. and BB. it is washed by the Black Sea, and on V. — Azov. It is connected to the continent the Perekopsky isthmus. For Century. The Crimean peninsula, between the Black and Azov seas, there is the Kerch peninsula. On Yu. The Crimean peninsula there pass three parallel ridges of the Crimean Mountains. The highest ridge — southern (to 1500 m above sea-level) — abruptly breaks to the Black Sea, forming a narrow strip of the Southern coast of the Crimea (width of 2 — 8 km).
Resort construction in the Crimea began in the 70th 19 century. The imperial government provided the insignificant means for development of resorts. Thanks to an initiative of a number of zemstvoes, charitable about-in, about-in the Russian doctors, etc. several sanatoria and spa facilities in Yalta, Alupka, Yevpatoria, Saky, Sevastopol, the Pike perch, Feodosiya, Kerch were open. The aristocracy and an upper bourgeoisie built the palaces and giving hl. obr. on the Southern coast of the Crimea. In pre-revolutionary Russia resort richness of the Crimea was available only to the propertied classes. Hotels, boarding houses were privately owned and hl functioned. obr. in summertime. In the years of the civil war in the Crimea the resort help to wounded Red Army men was organized and several sanatoria are open. After liberation of the Crimea from V. I. White Guards. Lenin signed on December 21, 1920 the decree of Council of People's Commissars «About use of the Crimea for treatment of workers» on the basis of what the plan of transformation of the Crimea into the All-Union health resort was developed. Narkomzdrava on implementation of these actions was appointed the representative V. I. Lenin's brother doctor D. I. Ulyanov. In 1925 at the initiative of 3. P. Solovyova in Gurzuf the All-Union sanatorium summer camp was open Artek (see). Resort construction in the Crimea developed in high gear. So, if in 1913 in the Crimea there were only 1550 beds, then in 1934 the quantity of beds in sanatoria and rest houses made 43 862. For years of the Great Patriotic War the resorts of the Crimea considerably suffered from enemy occupation. In post-war years thanks to special attention of Party and government in the Crimea was not only the pre-war number of beds is recovered, but also many new sanatoria and rest houses are constructed.
In 1977 in the Crimean region there were 110 sanatoria on 42,1 thousand beds, 26 rest houses on 6,5 thousand places, 4 boarding houses of rest on 18,4 thousand places and 154 other establishments of rest (without one - and two-day) on 21,9 thousand places. In 1977 on To. to. 940,7 thousand persons were treated and had a rest.
In the resorts of the Crimea big research on studying of resort resources and justification of methods of a climatotherapy, thalassotherapy, a balneoterapiya and mud cure is carried out. Plays the coordinating and scientific and methodical role Research in-t of physical methods of treatment and medical climatology of I. M. Sechenov, formed in 1923 as a result of the merge which opened in Sevastopol in 1914. Ying-that physical methods of treatment of I. M. Sechenov and organized in 1922 in Yalta tubercular in-that.
In the Crimea distinguish three types of climate: flat, mountain and seaside. The number of hours of sunshine makes 2100 — 2400 in a year; during the summer period of year when height of standing of the sun exceeds 45 °, activity of ultra-violet radiation is noted considerable biol. On the Crimean peninsula prevail vost. and sowing. - vost. winds. The mountain chain stretched with 3. on V., separates yuzh. the part of the peninsula also protects yuzh. protected from cold continental winds. In flat and foothill districts of the most part of the Crimea climate droughty with very warm summer and in the soft winter, with an annual amount of precipitation of 300 — 500 mm. Average annual air temperature 10 — 12 °.
In areas of the mountain Crimea lines steppe (the slopes of mountains oriented to S.) and seaside are combined (the slopes oriented on Yu.) climate. The annual amount of precipitation in mountain districts reaches 1000 — 1500 mm, from the middle of November to the middle of April steady snow cover lies. The Mediterranean type of climate with warm solar dry summer with an average temperature of 20 — 24 ° and softer (in comparison with the Northern Crimea) in the winter, the average temperature of January 4 ° is characteristic of seaside and foothill districts of the Southern coast of the Crimea. Fall — the best season — warm, spring long. Annual amount of precipitation of 400 — 600 mm. On the Southern coast of the Crimea constant winds are the coastal breezes blowing in the afternoon from the sea on the land, at night — from the land at the sea. Day breezes promote natural ventilation and moderate a summer heat a little. Climate South vost. and zap. coasts of the Crimea it is characterized by a peculiar combination of steppe and sea climate. Climate of the Kerch peninsula droughty. Winter cold and windy, summer hot and solar. Annual average amount of precipitation of 350 mm.
Some features of climate of certain resorts are given below.
The Crimea is rich with mineral waters of various types, the main of them chloride and gidrokarbonatno-chloride sodium, sulphidic, boric, etc.
In the Crimea there are six groups of salt lakes, many of which contain large supplies to lay down. quality dirt: The Evpatoriysky group of lakes, including containing to lay down. Sasyk-Sivash dirt (largest lake of the Crimea), Moynakskoye and Sakskoye; Tarkhankutsky group (from them mud Donuzlav, Sasyk); Perekopsky group; Kerch group (including mud lakes Chokrakskbe, Tobechikskoye, Elkinskoye and Adzhigol); Chongaro-Arabatsky group (East Sivash, Sivash at the Chongarsky peninsula and the Arabatsky arrow, and also the lake Genicheskoye, etc.); Chersonese group.
The combination of the major natural factors — soft climate, the warm sea, colourful landscapes of mountains and the woods, dense vegetation to lay down. mineral waters and dirt — the dignity creates exclusively favorable conditions for the organization in the Crimea. - hens. treatments, in particular climatic (aero heliothalassotherapy), rest and tourism.
On a geographical arrangement and according to type of climate on the Crimean peninsula it is possible to allocate four groups of resorts and resort areas: on the Southern coast of the Crimea, on a South vost. its coast, on zap. the coast and on the Kerch peninsula.
On Southern coast of the Crimea (see) from the cape Aja to Mount Kara Dag the climatic seaside resorts of Foros, Kastropol, Simeiz, Alupka, Miskhor, Koreiz, Gaspra, the Oreanda, Livadia, Yalta, Massandra, Dolossa, Gurzuf are located, Artek (see), Alushta, Blue Gulf and medical areas Southern, Melas, Frunze, Worker Ugolok.
South vost. a part of the Crimea includes group of climatic resorts (from the West on the East): Pike perch, Crimean Primorye, Planersky, Old Crimea, Feodosiya (see) and number of medical areas.
A pike perch — the seaside flat climatic resort located in 104 km from Simferopol in the wide Sudaksky valley. The summer is very warm, the sunny weather prevails, the maximum temperature in separate days reaches 37 °. Number of hours of sunshine in a year apprx. 2260 (it is more, than in Yalta). Annual amount of precipitation — 357 mm; during the warm period of year, from April to October, 190 mm drop out. The greatest number of rainfall in July — 40 mm. Annual average relative humidity of 70%. The beach is wide, sand-gravel, a bottom of the sea flat, small. A swimming season from June to October. In the Pike perch sanatoria, boarding houses and rest houses function.
The Crimean Primorye (which was Otuza) — the seaside climatic resort of a steppe zone located in 29 km to Yu.-Z. from Feodosiya, in the valley of river of Otuzki; the valley from the East is protected by an array of Mountains Kara Dag. An amount of precipitation in a year — apprx. 360 mm. Number of hours of sunshine in a year apprx. 2200. The good sandy beach with impurity of pebble. Slopes of adjacent mountains and the valley are covered with gardens and vineyards. In the resort the boarding house of rest functions. A season of sea bathings from June to October.
Planerskoye (the former Koktebel) — the seaside climatic resort of a steppe zone located on the coast of a wide Koktebelsky bay in 21 km to Yu.-Z. from Feodosiya. The summer is warm, winter soft with an average temperature of 0 °. Number of hours of sunshine — 2100 in a year, rainfall apprx. 350 mm a year. The beach is wide, sand-and-shingle, a seabed flat. In the territory of Planersky are found nitrate hloridno - sulfate-calcium-magnesium waters with a mineralization of 7,8 g/l. In the resort boarding houses of rest and tourist center function. In 1913 in the settlement Ulyanov' family had a rest.
The old Crimea — the foothill climatic resort of a steppe zone, is in 26 km from Feodosiya on yuzh. a slope of the mountain Agarmysh at height apprx. 320 m above sea-level in the wide valley of the river Churuk-Su opened on C.-B. and Yu.-V. The summer is warm, dry, generally with slightly overcast weather. Rainfall in a year apprx. 510 mm, from April to October — 320 mm. Average temperature of July 21,9 °, January — 1,5 °. Number of hours of sunshine in a year 2270. Prevail zap. and South zap. winds, with Page and S.-Z. from sowing. winds the Old Crimea is protected by mountains. Slopes of mountains are covered with the woods, gardens and vineyards. The favorable climate, mountain air, abundance of greens create good conditions for treatment of TB patients. In 2,5 km of. The old Crimea in a forest park is located sanatorium for patients with active forms of a pulmonary tuberculosis.
On zap. the coast of the Crimea klimato-mud resorts are located (from the West on the East) Yevpatoria (see), Saky (see) and a number of medical areas — Black Sea, Olenevka, Nikolaevka, Popovka, Kuybyshevo, etc.
On the Kerch Peninsula resort areas Chokrak and Resort are located (Mysovoye).
Indications to treatment on To. to. rather wide in connection with advantage climatic factors. More detailed than the indication and a contraindication to treatment in the resorts of the Crimea — see. Sanatorium selection, table .
Bibliography: The resorts of the USSR, under the editorship of S. V. Kurashov, etc., page 482, M., 1962; L both p with to and y E. G. New resorts of the Crimea, Simferopol, 1965; Sosnovsky V. K. Health resorts of the Crimea, Simferopol, 1977.
A. I. Sretensky.