CREATIONISM (Latin creatio creation, generation) — the concept of divine creation of diverse forms of the organic world denying change and development of types. The creationistic tradition in biology arose in the Middle Ages, however took the pseudoscientific form in 19 century in works of one of founders of paleontology — Zh. Kyuvye.
Understanding obvious expediency biol, as predetermined nek-dig the organizations the prime target, Zh. Kyuvye nevertheless did not speak directly about new acts of divine creation. However his pupils and followers [D'Orbinyi (A. D. D’Orbigny), J. L. R. Agassiz] made «hypothesis» of recurrence of such acts and brought Zh. Kyuvye's views of development of wildlife to the consecutive creationistic concept.
Development of historical geology, comparative anatomy, biogeography and some other sciences proved that at the heart of transformation of the Earth's surface and, therefore, wildlife the natural reasons lie. Crushing blow To. it was put with Ch. Darvin's doctrine about the origin of species by natural selection. During the second half of 19 century. Darwinism (see) promptly forces out To. from biology. Especially intense fight against kreatsionolist was in England [A. Sedgwick, etc.] and in France [M. Flurans, Miln-Edwards (N. de Milne-Edwards), etc.].
As a result of a wide spread occurance in 19 — 20 centuries of the ideas theory of evolution (see). To. in the scientific relation it was insolvent. However this concept is used and presently by religion as ideology, the tool in fight against scientific biology as means for planting of theological, idealistic outlook.
Bibliography: History of biology since the most ancient times up to now, under red L. Ya. Blyakhera, etc., M., 1972; Kyuvye Sh. A reasoning on revolutions on the surface of the globe, lane with fr., M. — L., 1937; Smirnov I. N. Materialistic drtlektika and modern theory of evolution, M., 1978, bibliogr.; Frolov I. T. About causality and expediency in wildlife, M., 1961.
V. I. Kremyansky.