COUVEUSE (fr. couveuse incubator) — the device allowing to keep constant body temperature. To. apply to nursing of premature children with a low weight and signs of immaturity (see. Premature children ) and also the newborn babies with a hypotrophy, pneumonia, cardiovascular insufficiency who are in a serious condition.
There are two look To.: opened and closed; the tray hot-water bottle and a bed hot-water bottle belong to open. In 1860 K. Krede offered a tray hot-water bottle with double metal walls. In space between them through a funnel each 2 hours about two buckets of water with the temperature of 60 — 70 ° were poured. Cooled water was issued via the crane located at the bottom of a bathtub. In a bathtub there was a bed for the premature child, to-rogo stacked swaddled. Air temperature under a blanket should not have exceeded 35-38 °.
In 1951 M. S. Pantsulov offered an electric bed hot-water bottle. Such To. consisted of the metal case, in depth to-rogo there was a tray bed for the child made of organic glass. The tray could be used for bathing of the child. To each child in To. the individual temperature schedule within 30-38 ° was set.
In 1878 Mr. of S. E. Tarnier offered To. the closed type, in Krom the child not only was warmed, but breath was provided to it with the warmed moistened air. Besides, closed To. protected the child from infection of the environment more reliably. To. represented a wooden box with double walls, between to-rymi sawdust for heat insulation was filled up. In the lower half there was a heating system (tanks with the water which is warmed up by a gas or kerosene burner), and in upper where the child accommodated, there were an air vent and a glass window for overseeing by the child. Moistening of air was carried out by wet sponges.
Modern To. the closed type are electric To., called by incubators (fig). All of them are designed according to the uniform schematic diagram: the metal case installed on a wheelchair, electric equipment and a big transparent cap. In them automatic control of temperature in the necessary mode, the constant dosed supply of oxygen, controlled humidity, and also a possibility of carrying out manipulations on leaving and treatment of the child without disturbance of temperature, air humidity, the oxygen content in an incubator is carried out. Transparent walls of an incubator allow to watch a condition of the child; care of it is carried out through sleeves or windows in sidewalls of a cap. Temperature in an incubator is established depending on the body weight, age, the general condition and specific features of the child usually ranging from 31 to the 35th a hail. Air humidity is maintained within 90 — 95% with gradual decrease. Concentration of oxygen in an incubator shall not exceed 40% since its big concentration can lead to severe damage of eyes — retrolental fibroplasia (see), the connective tissue film which is characterized by education between the back capsule of a crystalline lens and a front boundary membrane of a vitreous. Sterilization To. it is carried out by radiation by a quartz lamp, and also use of desinfectants.
In our country incubators of production of Czechoslovakia and Hungary — Inka and Medikor are widely used.
Bibliography: Kravets E. M. Premature children, M., 1950, bibliogr.; The multivolume guide to pediatrics, under the editorship of Yu. F. Dombrovskaya, t. 2, page 449, M., 1961, bibliogr.; Sotnikova K. A., etc. Stage nursing of premature children, Pediatrics, No. 10, page 66, 1971, bibliogr.
N. G. Zernov.