COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC MUTUAL ASSISTANCE (CEMA) — intergovernmental economic organization of the socialist states.
In January, 1949 in Moscow the economic meeting of representatives of 6 countries — Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia took place, on Krom it was recognized necessary to create Council of Economic Mutual assistance for expansion of economic cooperation between the socialist countries. The meeting defined main objectives and problems of SEV, its principles and activities. Member countries decided to carry out constantly and in every possible way exchange of economic experience, to give each other technical and financial help.
Council of Economic Mutual assistance was proclaimed the open organization, in to-ruyu other countries sharing it the purposes and the principles and persons interested to participate in broad economic cooperation with member countries of SEV could enter. In April, 1949 at the I Session of SEV the foundation of its practical activities was laid. In 1950 in SEV the German Democratic Republic, in 1962 — the Mongolian People's Republic, in 1972 — the Republic of Cuba and in 1978 — the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was accepted. Thus, by 1982 members of SEV were ten states of Europe, Asia and America with the population more than 443 million people borrowing apprx. 20% of the territory of the globe and making apprx. 40% of all world industrial output.
According to the Charter of SEV adopted at the XII Session by SEV (1959) and which became effective since April 13, 1960 Cooperation agreements between SEV and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1964), the Republic of Finland (1973), the Iraqi Republic and the United Mexican States are signed (1975).
Representatives of the People's Republic of Angola, the Democratic Republic Afghanistan, People's Republic of Kampuchea, the Korean Republic Narodno-Demokratiche-skoy, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the People's Republic Mozambique, Socialist Ethiopia take part in work of nek-ry bodies of SEV as observers.
The main objective of SEV is association and coordination of efforts of member countries of SEV on further deepening of ii to improvement of economic and scientific and technical cooperation, development of socialist economic integration, continuous increase in welfare of the people of the socialist countries. Economic and scientific and technical cooperation of member countries of SEV is carried out on the basis of the principles of socialist internationalism, full equality and sovereignty, independence and national interests, mutual benefit and friendly mutual assistance.
For implementation of the problems of SEV has system of various bodies; the Session, Executive committee, committees, the constant commissions, the secretariat and some other bodies concern to them, functions and powers to-rykh are defined by the Charter of SEV.
The constant commissions of SEV are created according to the decision of the Session of SEV for assistance to further development of economic relations between member countries of SEV and the organization of multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in the separate industries of the national economy. The first constant commissions of SEV (on cooperation in foreign trade, mechanical engineering, agriculture, nonferrous metallurgy, the oil and gas industry, coal, chemical industry and ferrous metallurgy) were created according to the decision of the VII session of SEV (1956). In 1982 within SEV 22 constant commissions covering economic and scientific and technical cooperation practically all primary branches of the national economy of member countries of SEV functioned.
The constant commission of SEV on cooperation in health care was created in 1975 under the resolution of the XXIX Session of SEV due to the need of development and improvement of cooperation of member countries of SEV in health care, the medical science and technology which are important for further development of the material and cultural standard of living of the people of these countries. The session recognized reasonable that the member countries of SEV interested in implementation of cooperation in this area within SEV were presented to the Commissions by Ministers of Health.
According to the decision of the XXIX Session of SEV, assistance to further deepening and improvement of multilateral economic and scientific and technical cooperation and to development of socialist economic integration of member countries of SEV in the field of health care, medical science and technology, pharmacy by development of the main directions in these areas, coordination and specialization of the major scientific medical research, exchange of experience in the organization of health care, information on results of researches, inventions and other achievements in medical science and technology, etc. shall be the main objective of the Commission.
The commission is presented by 9 countries; her members are: Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, GDR, Cuba, Mongolia, Poland, Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia. Functions of the secretariat of the Commission are performed by public health department of the secretariat of SEV. B. V. Petrovsky, and in 1981 — the Minister of Health of the USSR S. P. Burenkov was elected the first constant chairman of the Commission. Meetings of the Commission are held 1 — 2 time a year serially in each country. The commission carries out the activity according to the charter of SEV, standard rules and the provision on the Commission. By 1982 12 meetings of the Commission were held, on to-rykh the questions of economic and scientific and technical cooperation of member countries of SEV which are in the plan of work of the Commission were repeatedly considered and discussed.
For 1981 — 1985. The commission defined the following main directions of cooperation: state of health of the population and organization of health care of member countries of SEV; fight against cardiovascular diseases; with malignant new growths; flu; hygiene of the environment; occupational health and occupational diseases; fight against infectious incidence; organ and tissue transplantation and questions of transplantation immunology; development and production of medical immunobiological supplies; research, assessment and standardization of pharmaceuticals; scientific development and unification of methods and means of clinical laboratory diagnosis; protection of motherhood and childhood.
In these directions the plan of scientific and technical cooperation is prepared, the subject, parent organizations responsible for coordination of researches on subjects, and the scientific institutions participating in developments are defined. In total within the Commission more than 540 research organizations which are taking part in development of 228 subjects on 60 problems cooperate.
In the work the Commission constantly pays much attention to close interaction with other industry commissions. So, lists of the most important products of the medical equipment and pharm are developed and approved. drugs, and also approximate need of member countries of SEV for them till 1990. Lists regularly (once in 2 — 3 years) are updated and go to the constant commissions on cooperation in mechanical engineering, the chemical industry and on use of atomic energy in the peace purposes where they can be useful during the carrying out consultations on coordination of economic plans and preparation of offers on specialization and cooperation of production.
Much attention in activity of the Commission is paid to the organization of the specific brotherly help for development of health care of Vietnam, Mongolia and Cuba.
During five summer (1976 — 1980) multilateral economic and scientific and technical cooperation of member countries of SEV in health care agreements on scientific and technical cooperation in development of cardiology, organ and tissue transplantation, production of medical immunobiological supplies and pharmaceuticals were signed. The Agreement on multilateral specialization and cooperation of production and mutual deliveries immunobiological was signed. drugs, counted on ensuring needs of the countries for the major drugs for prevention of such diseases as poliomyelitis, meningitis, measles, tuberculosis, rage, tetanus, etc. with the smallest economic expenses.
For the purpose of increase in efficiency of cooperation the Commission provides to reduce and concretize scientific and technical subject, having concentrated attention on the largest problems of health care, and also on problems of economic character with closer coordination of these problems with activity of other bodies of SEV and taking into account the tasks set in long-term target programs of cooperation of member countries of SEV.
Cooperation in medical equipment and pharmacy develops according to the tasks set by the comprehensive program of socialist integration of member countries of SEV in the field of creation and production of the medical equipment and pharmaceuticals. This function belongs to the section «Medical equipment» of the Constant commission of SEV on cooperation in mechanical engineering and the section «Pharmaceutical industry» of the Constant commission of SEV on Cooperation in chemical industry. The beginning of activity of sections (till 1979 — the working groups) belongs to 1956, however most actively they began to work since 1970 after acceptance (at the initiative of the USSR) Executive committee of SEV of the decision on strengthening of integration of the industry of member countries of SEV and specialization of production.
Both sections as working bodies of the constant commissions of SEV, coordinate development plans for the medical industry of member countries of SEV; will organize direct scientific and technical cooperation between the organizations of member countries of SEV in development of products of the medical equipment and pharmaceuticals, and also in standardization of these types of products; prepare offers on specialization and cooperation of production.
New samples of the medical equipment, production are result of collaborations to-rykh the 6-channel electrocardiograph (USSR and ChSSR), flexible and rigid endoscopic devices (USSR and BHP), the 4-channel biochemical autoanalyzer is conducted on the basis of specialization or cooperation, e.g. (the USSR and GDR). In the USSR together with the organizations of Bulgaria development of devices for physical therapy and the pharmaceutical equipment with release of these products in Bulgaria is conducted. Within scientific and technical cooperation joint development of new techno of l is carried out. processes in production of the medical equipment: products of-point optics, syringe needles, medical tools and other types of products. Uniform methods and means of tests and control of ready medical devices and accessories to them are created.
Much attention is paid to collaborations in creation of new pharmaceuticals, and also in improvement tekhnol. processes of production of vitamins, antibiotics and synthetic drugs for the purpose of creation of the high-automated large-capacity productions of these products. Collaborations in improvement of technology of cultivation of medicinal plants, harvesting and processings of vegetable raw materials, selection and to seed farming of medicinal cultures are conducted.
Special significance is attached to works on standardization (see) in the field of the medical equipment and pharmaceuticals. From 1971 to 1980 more than 30 SEV standards on the medical equipment are developed. Works on creation of complexes of the SEV standards necessary for timely and full normative and technical providing specific actions for economic and scientific and technical cooperation, specialization and cooperation of production are conducted.
Since 1970 collections of the unified requirements and testing methods of pharmaceuticals are regularly published, there is a work on standardization of normative requirements to quality of the medicines produced in member countries of SEV.
For full providing member countries of SEV with the medical equipment and pharmaceuticals distribution of work and the corresponding specialization of productions of member countries of SEV is used. It gives the chance on the basis of concentration of production to increase its volume, to reduce the nomenclature in each country, to reduce product cost and to increase its quality. Acting in a crust, time of the agreement more than 1 thousand products of the medical equipment and medicines (more than 200 dosage forms) provide specialization of production. Delivery of specialized products in a total amount of export import of the USSR and other member countries of SEV reaches 70%.
Scientific and technical cooperation on the medical equipment is coordinated to activity created in 1971. SEV coordination center for a problem «Creation of biomedical devices and equipment for scientific research and clinical medicine», to-ry conducts work on classification of the medical equipment, drawing up unified me - wild performance specification on its development, to creation of methods technical and a wedge, tests of new products, and also according to the analysis of a state and perspectives of development of need of health care for these products.
Work on scientific and technical and economic cooperation in the medical equipment and pharmacy is coordinated with activities of the Constant commission of SEV for cooperation in health care, and also with activity of other bodies of SEV, in particular with the Constant commissions of SEV on cooperation in use of atomic energy in the peace purposes, on cooperation in standardization, with other industry sections of the commissions on cooperation in mechanical engineering and the chemical industry.
Bibliography: Dvoryakovsky V. A. The international cooperation in developments and production of medical equipment (To the 30 anniversary of SEV), the Medical equipment, No. 3, page 4, 1979; Natradze A. G. Specialization and cooperation with member countries of SEV in the field of production of pharmaceuticals and products of medical equipment, page 30, M., 1979; The Commonwealth of member countries of SEV, the Political and economic dictionary reference, under the editorship of O. A. Chukanov, M., 1980; Thirtieth anniversary of the commonwealth of member countries of SEV, M., 1978.
E. A. Bogomazov; V. A. Dvoryakovsky (cooperation in medical equipment and pharmacy).