COSTA RICA, the Republic of Costa Rica — the state in Central America. The area is 50,9 thousand km 2 . Population of 2,06 million people (1977). The capital — San Jose (228 302 people, 1976). In the administrative relation K.-R. is divided into 7 provinces which are divided into cantons and districts. Ofits. language — Spanish. K.-P. — the republic, the head of state — the president. The legislature belongs to Legislative assembly (unicameral parliament), executive power is carried out the president and the Cabinet.
The most part of the country is occupied by volcanic ridges; on S. and along sea coast — lowlands. The climate is monsoonal, subtropical.
K.-P. — economically backward agrarian country; in its economy the foreign capital, hl prevails. obr. American. Main export cultures: coffee, bananas, cocoa, sugarcane, and also meat. The livestock production and fishery is developed. Mining industry is developed poorly. Manufacturing industry is presented by food, textile, tanning and shoe, woodworking, cement, metalworking and other enterprises.
The main population — Costa Ricans — descendants of the Spanish immigrants. Average population density 40 zhit. on 1 km 2 (1976). Vital rates, according to official figures, published in editions of WHO, in 1976 (for 1000 zhit.): birth rate 29,3, general mortality 4,8, natural increase 24,5. Child mortality in 1975 — 38,2 on 1000 live-born.
In 1974 incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases made 54,5 cases on 100 thousand zhit., including 26,9 — enteritam and others went. - kish. diseases, 4,4 — tuberculosis, 4,8 — tetanus, 0,6 — to a bark, 0,4 — a viral hepatitis and 17,4 — other. In 1973 cardiovascular diseases mortality on 100 thousand zhit. made 113,5, including from coronary heart disease — 37,9; from malignant new growths — 65,3; from endocrine frustration, disturbances of food and exchange — 21,8, including from avitaminosis and other frustration of food — 5,1; perinatal mortality (from a birth trauma, asphyxia, etc.) — 31,9; from pneumonia — 25,1. Growth of veins is noted. incidences.
Medical aid to the population is rendered by institutions which are subordinated min.-vu health care, to Costa Rican fund of social security and National in-that social insurance. Mines-in of health care consists of management of health care and management of the medico-social help, and also organizational and technical departments, including department of sectoral planning. The country is divided into 19 districts of health care.
In 1975 in the country would function 43 on 7549 beds (apprx. 38 beds on 10 thousand zhit.), from them 96,1% of beds — in state-tsakh, 2,6% in-tsakh public organizations and 1,3% of beds — in private. K.-P. — one of the few countries of Latin America where a share state to lay down. institutions it is very considerable. From total number of BC 19 general types (4573 beds), 1 tubercular (300 beds), 1 maternity home (120 beds), 1 pediatric (495 beds), 2 psychiatric (1608 beds), 19 rural (453 beds), etc. In state and public the payment for treatment would be raised.
Extra hospital help to the population in 1968 was given in 5 policlinics, 35 polyclinic departments of BC, 51 clinics and other mines-va institutions of health care and Costa Rican fund of social security, and also private medical practitioners; besides, 228 centers of food, posts and points of health care, 34 posts of medical aid and 16 mobile units of health care. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of K.-R. not fully corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad). In institutions of rural health care the hl works. obr. paramedical staff. In a year on 1 zhit. 4,6 appeals to the mines-va medical institutions of health care and fund of social security are necessary (1974).
In 1968 the help to mothers and children was 137 clinics for women, 153 centers for health protection of children and 34 offices of school health care. The program providing coverage the prenatal help of 75% of total number of pregnant women, the help at childbirth — 65% and the puerperal help — 40%, and also medical service of 90% of children aged till 1 year, 70% — from 1 year to 4 years and 50% of children under 5 years is developed.
Dental surgery help is given in 44 dental surgeries. Also 5 venereologic, 2 antitubercular, 1 oncological, 1 antileprotic clinic, 1 polyclinic rehabilitation department-tsy, 1 psychiatric consultation, etc. function (1968).
Protivoepid, actions come down hl. obr. to preventive vaccination of the population against poliomyelitis, tetanus, tuberculosis, a typhoid and paratyphus, whooping cough, etc.; in 1972 it is done apprx. 750 thousand vaccination. Actions for improvement of the environment are carried out. 95% of urban population are provided with water at home and apprx. 40% — the sewerage; 66% of country people use water handling though water not always happens high-quality (1974).
In 1973 in the country there were 1323 doctors (1 doctor for 1413 zhit.), and also 263 dentists, 315 druggists, 870 diplomaed nurses and midwifes, 4178 assistants to the nurse * and midwifes. By 1974 the number of doctors was laid off to 1213 people of Un-t of Costa Rica in San Jose 3 f-that have (medical, stomatol., pharm.), on which prepare shots of health care. Duration of training for medical f-those 5 years; in 1970 on f-t it was accepted 62, and ended it the 50th persons. Training of the diplomaed nurses is carried out by sisterly school (the term of training 3 years). Assistants to the nurse 3 schools train, assistants to the midwife — 1 school (term of training of 9 months). In 1975 it was let out 57 the diplomaed nurses and 162 assistants to the nurse and the midwife.
Bibliography: The fourth review of a condition of health care in the world (1 965 — 1968), page 163, Geneva, WHO, 1973; Proposed programme budget for the financial years 1976 and 1977, Off. Rec. Wld Hlth Org. No. 220, p. 463, Geneva, 1974.
E. V. Galakhov.