From Big Medical Encyclopedia

COSMETOLOGY (grech, kosmetike art of ornament + logos the doctrine) — the field of clinical medicine, the main objectives a cut are studying, treatment or masking of the cosmetic defects caused by diseases, inborn or age changes of an organism and also development of the methods and means used for this purpose.

To. it is connected with other fields of medicine — dermatology, surgery, oncology, endocrinology, medical genetics, etc. In it achievements of chemistry, physics, physiology, biology, and also various methods of a research are used: patogistologichesky, cytologic, gistoavtoradiografichesky, biochemical, the methods defining funkts, a condition of an organism. A specific place is held by the methods revealing funkts, a condition of skin — an electrothermics, an esteziometriya, a fotopigmentometriya, a calorimetry, etc.

Art of decoration of appearance of the person — cosmetics — developed since ancient times. Cosmetics were widely used in Ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece, India, China. In Hippocrates's works, Diokl for care of skin solar and air bathtubs, massage, various oils and ointments, means for elimination of off-flavor from a mouth, toothbrushing are recommended, to aromatization of a body. The author of the first systematized textbook on cosmetics K. Galen who distinguished cosmetics for masking of cosmetic shortcomings and for preservation of natural beauty is considered. In Renaissance cosmetics gained distribution in Europe, especially in France, edges in 16 century became the main center for production and the use of cosmetics, generally decorative character. The first description of cosmetic operation for a rhinoplasty and lips was made by G. Tagliacozzi in 1597 of skin of a shoulder. By the beginning of 17 century there were already two views of cosmetics; one doctors considered that cosmetics shall be a part of medical science, others believed that cosmetic art shall exist separately. Along with development a gigabyte. and the preventive direction in cosmetics the leading doctors of that time began to apply widely purely medical cosmetic methods, including cosmetic surgery. From now on cosmetics was divided on medical and decorative, emitted as well hygienic cosmetics (i.e. a gigabyte. measures of care of a body and prevention of aging). Such, especially conditional, sometimes continue to use division of the concept «cosmetics» and until now. Achievements of chemistry of 19 — 20 centuries (synthesis of alcohol, receiving synthetic paints, opening of photoprotective action of methyl salicylate, etc.) stimulated development To. At the end of 19 and the beginning of 20 century many scientists-physicians devoted the works to problems a gigabyte. and cosmetic care of skin and its appendages (G. Pashkis, 1900; M. M. Krasin, 1893; A. M. Grinfeld and F. F. Spichka, 1895; N. V. Sletov, 1910; S. I. Marzhetsky, 1911).

In Russia medical cosmetics was legalized by the special circular of Management of the chief medical inspector (1908), in Krom the order of obtaining certificates on the right to be engaged in medical cosmetics was defined. In 1910. The Moscow city's mayor approved the Charter Moscow in-that medical cosmetics of the pharmacist A. M. Ostroumov. The main objective of the organization in-that consisted in delivering an opportunity to the coming persons to use all latest ways intended for care of beauty of the person and a body. Necessary help was given in private beauty shops and offices. In 1910 N. V. Sletov published the book «Rate of Medical Cosmetics for Doctors, Masseurs and Public», in 1911 there were S. I. Marzhetsky's books («The guide to medical cosmetics and treatment of hair») and S. Ya. Eygorn («The quick reference guide and programs of an additional course for medical cosmetics»).

In 1933 — 1935 in Moscow and Leningrad specialized cosmetic clinics were organized. In 1937 in Moscow it was open Moscow in-t of beauty and hygiene of Ministry of the Food Industry of the USSR. In 1952 specified by in-t it was transferred to the RSFSR M3 system and it is renamed in Ying t of medical cosmetics, and in 1966 it is reorganized in Moscow research by in-t of cosmetology of M3 of RSFSR. The term «cosmetology» was offered A. Voina in 1934 on the International congress of dermatologists in Bucharest; A. Voina gave definition To. as the scientific discipline dealing with issues of creation of cosmetics in interrelation with medicine, pharmacology, sociology and other sciences. The term «cosmetics» is used in modern medicine only in applied value — concerning the special means and methods applied in To. (cosmetic operations, cosmetic procedures, cosmetics); in the perfumery industry and in life the term «cosmetics» means ornament, improvement of appearance of the person by means of the special cosmetics produced by the perfumery industry.

The Soviet scientists-dermatologists and surgeons V. I. Sukharev, M. A. Rozentul, M. M. Zheltakov, A. I. Kartamyshev, I. M. Michelson, F. M. Hitroye and many others promoted development and improvement To. in the scientific plan. Specialists in the field of maxillofacial surgery were founders of domestic cosmetic surgery: A. E. Rauer, H. M. Michelson, F. M. Hitrov, A. A. Limberg and their pupils. For the first time in the USSR department of cosmetic surgery was organized in Ying-those medical cosmetics in 1952 Mr.

Kosmetol. the help in the USSR is carried out by network specialized kosmetol. (treatment-and-prophylactic) institutions of the USSR M3 system (clinics, medical offices) and network of beauty shops and offices of system of the ministries of household and municipal services (carry out a gigabyte. and preventive actions for care of face skin and necks, and also actions of decorative character). For January 1, 1978 more than 160 functioned kosmetol. to lay down. - professional, institutions in many cities.

In kosmetol. institutions address people of different age, sex, public groups; more than 80% make women aged from 18 up to 40 years of them. The most widespread diseases which are followed by cosmetic defects of face skin, head and open parts of a body concerning which the population addresses in kosmetol. institutions, are seborrhea (both related a hair loss and eels), freckles, a rozatsea, warts, birthmarks, keratomas, lipomas of an atheroma, papilloma, a hemangioma, a ksantelazma a century, xanthomas, a hypertrichosis, and also skin hems, teleangiectasias, deformations of a nose, lips, eyebrows, auricles, etc. The majority of the specified diseases belongs to diseases of skin. In structure of negotiability the big percent is made by the persons needing elimination of such shortcomings as a tattoo, wrinkles, discolorations of face skin, the hair which are not satisfying the person, deformation of separate parts of his face and body.

Scientific research in To. are carried out in the following main directions: a) studying of a pathogeny and development of methods of treatment of cosmetic defects, including surgical; b) studying pharmakol, effects of cosmetics, research of biologically active agents recovering these or those exchange processes in skin (fatty, water-salt, vitamin, hormonal).

Also various aspects biochemical are studied, composition of skin fat, the quantity and structure of lipids in skin at healthy and sick persons, are developed immunobiol. methods of a research of skin. In a problem of aging much attention of a role of DNA in cells of the growing old skin, fibroblasts, glycoproteins and corticosteroid hormones in connecting fabric is paid. Experimental and a wedge, works in scientific research institute of cosmetology in 1974 — 1975 showed change of exchange processes in face skin during the aging and a possibility of impact on these processes by the special creams containing vitamins, amino acids, sterols and some active agents. At the same time morfol. researches confirmed improvement of regenerative ability of epidermis, krovo-and lymphokineses. Besides, in cosmetology institutions the researches which are going beyond a subject K are conducted., but closely connected with the solution of its tasks. In particular, the works devoted to single questions of a pathogeny, clinic and treatment of the diseases of skin which are most often followed by cosmetic defects are performed (acne rash, seborrhea, an alopecia, etc.).

For treatment of the diseases which are followed by defects, and elimination of cosmetic defects various conservative and surgical methods, including dermabrasion, diathermocoagulation, cryotherapy and a cryolysis, and also various are applied cosmetic procedures (see).

An important place in To. development of methods of surgical treatment of deformations of the person and body borrows. The cosmetic (esthetic) surgery is closely connected with a plastic surgery; its main objective is elimination in the operational way of deformations, recovery of functions of body, and also improvement of appearance of the person is frequent. Can be carried to cosmetic operations rhinoplasty (see), otoplasty (see), plastic surgeries on lips (see. Lips ). Operations for elimination of surplus of skin of cheeks, a chin, a neck, a forehead, a century, correction of a shape of eyebrows, the shapes of auricles (which are sticking out, grew, sharp-pointed, lack of auricles), operations for an underdevelopment or a hypertrophy of mammary glands, deformations of an abdominal wall (an otvisaniye, obesity), hips and buttocks belong to transactions of cosmetic indications (obesity). Indications to cosmetic operations decide in each case individually, especially at children.

The research of raw materials and the dyes applied to production enters tasks of cosmetologists cosmetics (see); their definition on toxicity, identification of the irritating and allergenic effect, ability of biologically active agents to get through a skin barrier, check on Carcinogenicity, teratogenecity is obligatory. For the characteristic of the mechanism of effect of the cosmetics which are especially containing biologically active agents it is studied them pharmacodynamics (see), pharmacokinetics (see), influence on funkts, a condition of skin. After carrying out necessary experimental assessment cosmetic can be directed to a wedge, approbation, at a cut taking into account chemical structure of drug is checked to lay down. influence of means depending on a form of a disease, existence of age and other changes etc.

There is the International federation of society of chemists and cosmetologists, members a cut are Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, England, Italy, Japan, the USA, Spain and some other countries. In France and the USA associations of surgeons-cosmetologists are organized. In the USSR at the Moscow city society of dermatologists the section of cosmetologists is organized. A main objective of societies is development To., encouragement theoretical and a wedge, researches in all directions K.

In the USSR conferences of cosmetologists on various questions scientific and practical are held To.; scientific, practical and popular literature is published: collections of the works «Cosmetic Operations of the Person» (1965), «Questions of medical cosmetics» (1968), «Topical issues of cosmetology» (1970), «Modern cosmetology» (1974), «A practical grant for cosmetics bags masseurs» (1974), «Cosmetics for all» (1974), «The reference book on medical cosmetics» (1975), «Kliniko-eksperimentalnaya cosmetology» (1976). Cosmetologists (dermatologists and surgeons) of our country repeatedly were participants of the international symposiums on K. V the Moscow scientific research institute of cosmetology M3 of RSFSR as the commonwealth there underwent specialization doctors from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, DPRK, the USA, Jordan and other countries.

In kosmetol. institutions the dermatologists, surgeons, nurses who had special training in scientific research institute of cosmetology, consulting physicians of other specialties work.

Bibliography: Topical issues of cosmetology, under the editorship of V. Ya. Arutyunov, M., 1970; Andreyeva D. N., etc. Reference book on medical cosmetics, L., 1978; Aureden L. The book about medical cosmetics, the lane with polsk., M., 1971; Akha - and d z e A. F. Sostoyaniye and perspectives of development of the cosmetology help, Zdyuavookhr. Grew. Federations, No. 12, page 17, 1976; Kartamyshev A. I. and Arnold V. A. Medical cosmetics, M., 1955; Cosmetic operations of the person, under the editorship of H. M. Michelson, M., 1965; P and at-e r A. E. and M and x e of l with about N of H. M. Plastic surgeries on the person, M., 1954, bibliogr.; The reference book on cosmetics, under .red. M. A. Rozentula, M., 1964; The Reference book on medical cosmetics, under the editorship of A. F. Akhabadze, M., 1975; Reed R. J. New concepts in surgical pathology of the skin, N. Y., 1976; Sonnichsen N. u. Zabel R. Hautkrankheiten, Lpz., 1976.

A. F. Akhabadze.